Buick Encore Owners & Service Manuals

Buick Encore: Diagnostic information and procedures

Buick Encore 2012-2019 Service Manual / Brakes / Disc Brakes / Diagnostic information and procedures

Brake rotor thickness measurement

SPECIFICATIONS

FASTENER TIGHTENING SPECIFICATIONS

Fastener Tightening Specifications

Fastener Tightening Specifications

DISC BRAKE COMPONENT SPECIFICATIONS

Disc Brake Component Specifications

Disc Brake Component Specifications

Disc Brake Component Specifications

DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION AND PROCEDURES

BRAKE ROTOR THICKNESS MEASUREMENT

WARNING: Refer to Brake Dust Warning .

  1. If the inboard friction surface of the brake rotor is not accessible, reposition and support the caliper with the brake pads. Refer to Front Disc Brake Pads Replacement.

Fig. 1: Micrometer On Brake Rotor
Fig. 1: Micrometer On Brake Rotor

  1. Clean the friction surfaces of the brake rotor with denatured alcohol, or an equivalent approved brake cleaner.
  2. Using a micrometer (1) calibrated in thousandths-of-a-millimeter, or ten-thousandths-of-an-inch, measure and record the thickness of the brake rotor at four or more points, evenly spaced around the brake rotor.

    Make sure that the measurements are only taken within the friction surfaces and that the micrometer is positioned the same distance from the outer edge of the brake rotor, about 13 mm (1/2 in), for each measurement.

  3. Compare the lowest thickness measurement recorded to the specifications. Refer to Disc Brake Component Specifications.
  4. If the lowest thickness measurement of the brake rotor is above the minimum allowable thickness after refinishing specification, the brake rotor may be able to be refinished, depending upon surface and wear conditions which may be present.
  5. If the lowest thickness measurement of the brake rotor is at or below the discard thickness specification, the brake rotor requires replacement.

BRAKE ROTOR THICKNESS VARIATION MEASUREMENT

WARNING: Refer to Brake Dust Warning .

NOTE: Any disc brake rotor that exhibits thickness variation exceeding the maximum acceptable level must be refinished or replaced. Thickness variation exceeding the maximum acceptable level can cause brake pulsation.

  1. If the inboard friction surface of the brake rotor is not accessible, reposition and support the caliper with the brake pads. Refer to Front Disc Brake Pads Replacement.
  2. Clean the friction surfaces of the brake rotor with denatured alcohol, or an equivalent approved brake cleaner.

Fig. 2: Micrometer On Brake Rotor
Fig. 2: Micrometer On Brake Rotor

  1. Using a micrometer (1) calibrated in thousandths-of-a-millimeter, or ten-thousandths-of-an-inch, measure and record the thickness of the brake rotor at 4 or more points, evenly spaced around the brake rotor.

Make sure that the measurements are only taken within the friction surfaces and that the micrometer is positioned the same distance from the outer edge of the brake rotor, about 13 mm (1/2 in), for each measurement.

  1. Calculate the difference between the highest and lowest thickness measurements recorded to obtain the amount of thickness variation.

NOTE: Whenever a brake rotor is refinished or replaced, the assembled lateral runout (LRO) of the brake rotor must be measured to make sure optimum performance of the disc brakes.

  1. Compare the thickness variation measurement to the following specification:

Specification

  • J93, J94: 0.02 mm (0.0008 in)
  • JPW, J97: 0.02 mm (0.0008 in)
  1. If the brake rotor thickness variation measurement exceeds the specification, the brake rotor requires refinishing or replacement.

Brake rotor surface and wear inspection

WARNING: Refer to Brake Dust Warning .

  1. If the inboard friction surface of the brake rotor is not accessible, reposition and support the caliper with the brake pads. Refer to Front Disc Brake Pads Replacement.
  2. Clean the friction surfaces of the brake rotor with denatured alcohol, or an equivalent approved brake cleaner.
  3. Inspect the friction surfaces of the brake rotor for the following braking surface conditions:
  • Heavy rust and/or pitting

Light surface rust can be removed with an abrasive disc. Heavy surface rust and/or pitting must be removed by refinishing the brake rotor.

  • Cracks and/or heat spots
  • Too much blueing discoloration
  1. If the friction surfaces of the brake rotor exhibit one or more of the braking surface conditions, the brake rotor requires refinishing or replacement.

Fig. 3: Micrometer On Brake Rotor
Fig. 3: Micrometer On Brake Rotor

  1. Using a micrometer (1) calibrated in thousandths-of-a-millimeter, or ten-thousandths-of-an-inch, measure and record the scoring depth of any grooves present on the brake rotor friction surfaces.
  2. Compare the groove scoring depth recorded to the following specification:

Specification

Brake rotor maximum allowable scoring: 1.50 mm (0.059 in) .

  1. If the brake disc rotor scoring depth exceeds the specification, or if an excessive amount of scoring is present, the brake rotor requires refinishing or replacement.

BRAKE ROTOR ASSEMBLED LATERAL RUNOUT MEASUREMENT

Special Tools

  • CH-41013 Rotor Surfacing Kit
  • CH-42450-A Wheel Hub Resurfacing Kit
  • CH-45101 Hub and Wheel Runout Gauge
  • CH-45101-100 Conical Brake Rotor Washers

For equivalent regional tools, refer to Special Tools.

WARNING: Refer to Brake Dust Warning .

NOTE:

  • Brake rotor assembled lateral runout (LRO) exceeding the maximum allowable specification can cause thickness variation to develop in the brake rotor over time, usually between 4,800-11,300 km (3,000- 7,000 mi).
  • Brake rotor thickness variation MUST be inspected BEFORE inspecting for assembled lateral runout (LRO). Thickness variation exceeding the maximum acceptable level can cause brake pulsation.

    Refer to Brake Rotor Thickness Variation Measurement.

  1. Matchmark the position of the brake rotor to the wheel studs if this has not been done already.

NOTE: Whenever the brake rotor has been separated from the hub/axle flange, any rust or contaminants should be cleaned from the hub/axle flange and the brake rotor mating surfaces. Failure to do this may result in excessive assembled lateral runout (LRO) of the brake rotor, which could lead to brake pulsation.

  1. Inspect the mating surface of the hub/axle flange and the brake rotor to make sure that there are no foreign particles, corrosion, rust, or debris remaining. If the wheel hub/axle flange and/or brake rotor mating surfaces exhibit these conditions, perform the following steps:
  1. Remove the brake rotor from the vehicle. Refer to Front Brake Rotor Replacement.
  2. Using the CH-42450-A wheel hub resurfacing kit , thoroughly clean any rust or corrosion from the mating surface of the hub/axle flange.
  3. Using the CH-41013 rotor resurfacing kit , thoroughly clean any rust or corrosion from the mating surface of the brake rotor.
  4. Clean the friction surfaces of the brake rotor with denatured alcohol, or an equivalent approved brake cleaner.
  1. Install the rotor to the hub/axle flange using the matchmark made prior to removal.

Fig. 4: One Lug Nut & Conical Brake Rotor Washers
Fig. 4: One Lug Nut & Conical Brake Rotor Washers

  1. Hold the brake rotor firmly in place against the hub/axle flange and install one of the CH-45101-100 conical brake rotor washers (1), and one lug nut (2) onto the upper-most wheel stud.
  2. Continue to hold the brake rotor secure and tighten the lug nut firmly by hand.

Fig. 5: Wheel Studs
Fig. 5: Wheel Studs

  1. Install the remaining CH-45101-100 conical brake rotor washers (1) and lug nuts onto the wheel studs and tighten the nuts firmly by hand in the tightening sequence.
  2. Tighten the lug nuts in sequence, in order to properly secure the rotor. Refer to Tire and Wheel Removal and Installation .
  3. If the brake rotor has been REFINISHED or REPLACED with a new rotor, proceed to step 14.
  4. If the brake rotor meets the following criteria, proceed to step 10.
  • The rotor is within specifications and is being REUSED.
  • The rotor has NOT been refinished.
  • The rotor does not exhibit thickness variation exceeding the maximum allowable level.

Fig. 6: Hub And Wheel Runout Gauge
Fig. 6: Hub And Wheel Runout Gauge

  1. Mount a dial indicator, CH-45101 hub and wheel runout gauge (1), or equivalent, to the steering knuckle and position the indicator button so it contacts the brake rotor friction surface at a 90 degree angle, approximately 13 mm (0.5 in) from the outer edge of the rotor.
  2. Measure and record the assembled LRO of the brake rotor:
  1. Rotate the rotor until the lowest reading is displayed on the indicator dial, then set the dial to zero.
  2. Rotate the rotor until the highest reading is displayed on the dial.
  3. Mark the location of the high spot relative to the nearest wheel stud, or studs.
  4. Measure and record the amount of assembled LRO.
  1. Compare the brake rotor assembled LRO to the following specification:

Specification

Front brake rotor maximum allowable assembled lateral runout: 0.05 mm (0.002 in)

  1. If the brake rotor assembled LRO is within specifications, proceed to step 18.

If the brake rotor assembled LRO exceeds the specification, refinish the rotor to ensure true parallelism.

Refer to Brake Rotor Refinishing. After refinishing the rotor, proceed to step 14.

  1. Mount a dial indicator, CH-45101 hub and wheel runout gauge , or equivalent, to the steering knuckle and position the indicator button so it contacts the brake rotor friction surface at a 90 degree angle, approximately 13 mm (0.5 in) from the outer edge of the rotor.
  2. Measure and record the assembled LRO of the brake rotor.
  1. Rotate the rotor until the lowest reading is displayed on the indicator dial, then set the dial to zero.
  2. Rotate the rotor until the highest reading is displayed on the dial.
  3. Mark the location of the high spot relative to the nearest wheel stud, or studs.
  4. Measure and record the amount of assembled LRO.
  1. Compare the brake rotor assembled LRO to the following specification:

Specification

Front brake rotor maximum allowable assembled lateral runout: 0.05 mm (0.002 in) .

  1. If the brake rotor assembled LRO measurement exceeds the specification, bring the LRO to within specifications. Refer to Brake Rotor Assembled Lateral Runout Correction.
  2. If the brake rotor assembled LRO measurement is within specification, install the brake caliper and depress the brake pedal several times to secure the brake rotor in place before removing the CH-45101- 100 conical brake rotor washers and the lug nuts.

Brake pad inspection

Fig. 7: Disc Brake Pads And Audible Wear Sensors
Fig. 7: Disc Brake Pads And Audible Wear Sensors

WARNING: Refer to Brake Dust Warning .

  1. Inspect the disc brake pads at regular intervals, or whenever the tire and wheel assemblies are removed from the vehicle.
  2. If replacement is necessary, always replace disc brake pads in axle sets.
  3. Inspect both edges of the disc brake pad friction surfaces (3). The highest rate of wear normally occurs at the trailing edge of the disc brake pads.
  4. Inspect the thickness of the disc brake pads (3) in order to ensure that they have not worn prematurely.

    The disc brake pad wear should be approximately even per axle set.

  5. Front brake pads have integral, audible wear sensors (1). When the disc brake pad wear reaches the minimum allowable thickness, the wear sensor contacts the disc brake rotor (2). The wear indicator will then produce an audible, high-pitched warning noise during wheel rotation.
  6. Replace the disc brake pads when the friction surface (3) is worn to within 2.00 mm (0.079 in) of the mounting plates.
  7. Verify that any disc brake pad shims that may be required are in place and not damaged or excessively corroded. Replace any missing or damaged shims in order to preserve proper disc brake performance.
  8. Replace the disc brake pads if any have separated from the mounting plates.
  9. Inspect the disc brake pads friction surfaces for cracks, fractures, or damage which may cause noise or otherwise impair disc brake performance.

BRAKE CALIPER INSPECTION

Fig. 8: Brake Caliper Components
| Fig. 8: Brake Caliper Components

WARNING: Refer to Brake Dust Warning .

  1. Inspect the brake caliper housing (1) for cracks, excess wear, and/or damage. If any of these conditions are present, the brake caliper requires replacement.
  2. Inspect the caliper piston dust boot seal (2) for cracks, tears, cuts, deterioration and/or improper seating in the caliper body. If any of these conditions are present, the brake caliper requires overhaul or replacement.
  3. Inspect for brake fluid leakage around the caliper piston dust boot seal (6) and on the disc brake pads. If there is any evidence of brake fluid leakage, the brake caliper requires overhaul or replacement.

Fig. 9: Brake Caliper, Inner Brake Pad And C-Clamp
Fig. 9: Brake Caliper, Inner Brake Pad And C-Clamp

  1. Inspect for smooth and complete travel of the caliper pistons into the caliper bores:
  • The movement of the caliper pistons into the caliper bores should be smooth and even. If the caliper piston is frozen or difficult to bottom, the caliper requires overhaul or replacement.
  • Insert a discarded inner brake pad (2) or block of wood in front of the piston. Using a large Cclamp (1) installed over the body of the caliper (3) and against the brake pad or block of wood, slowly bottom the piston in the bore.

Front disc brake mounting and hardware inspection

WARNING: Refer to Brake Dust Warning .

Fig. 10: Exploded View Of Brake Pads And Brake Caliper Mounting Bracket
Fig. 10: Exploded View Of Brake Pads And Brake Caliper Mounting Bracket

  1. Inspect the fluid level in the brake master cylinder reservoir.
  2. If the brake fluid level is midway between the maximum-full point and the minimum allowable level then no brake fluid needs to be removed from the reservoir before proceeding.
  3. If the brake fluid level is higher than midway between the maximum-full point and the minimum allowable level then remove brake fluid to the midway point before proceeding.
  4. Raise and support the vehicle. Refer to Lifting and Jacking the Vehicle .
  5. Remove the tire and wheel assembly. Refer to Tire and Wheel Removal and Installation .
  6. Grasp the brake caliper housing and try to move the brake caliper housing up/down and forward/reverse in relation to the brake caliper mounting bracket (3). If excessive looseness is observed the brake caliper bracket bushings and/or the brake caliper mounting bolts may need to be replaced.
  7. Compress the front caliper pistons.

  1. Install a large C-clamp over the top of the caliper housing and against the back of the outboard pad (1).
  2. Slowly tighten the C-clamp until the pistons are pushed completely into the caliper bores.
  3. Remove the C-clamp from the caliper.
  1. With the pistons compressed into the caliper bores, grasp the brake caliper housing and slide it back and forth on the brake caliper mounting bolts. Check for smooth operation. If the brake caliper housing slide force is high or the brake caliper housing does not slide smoothly, inspect the brake caliper mounting bolts and/or the brake caliper mounting bracket bushings for wear or damage. If wear or damage conditions are found, replacement of the brake caliper mounting bolts and/or the brake caliper mounting bracket bushings is necessary.
  2. Remove the brake caliper mounting bolts from the brake caliper mounting bracket and support the brake caliper using heavy mechanics wire. Do Not remove the hydraulic brake hose from the caliper. Refer to Front Brake Caliper Replacement.
  3. Remove the disc brake pads (1, 4) from the brake caliper mounting bracket (3).
  4. Inspect the disc brake pad mounting hardware for the following:
  • Missing mounting hardware.
  • Excessive corrosion.
  • Bent pad retainer spring (2).
  • Looseness at the brake caliper mounting bracket (3).
  • Looseness at the disc brake pads (1, 4).
  • Excessive contaminants in the brake caliper mounting bracket (3) surface and threads.
  1. If any of the conditions listed are found, the disc brake pad mounting hardware requires replacement.
  2. Ensure the disc brake pads are held firmly in place on the brake caliper mounting bracket, yet slide easily on the mounting hardware without binding.

Fig. 11: View Of Caliper, Pin, Boots & Caliper Mounting Bracket
Fig. 11: View Of Caliper, Pin, Boots & Caliper Mounting Bracket

  1. Inspect the caliper bolts (1) for the following:
  • Binding
  • Seizing
  • Looseness in the brake caliper mounting bracket (3).
  • Bent or damaged brake caliper mounting bolts (1).
  • Cracked or torn boots (4).
  • Missing boots.
  • Bent or damaged brake caliper mounting bracket (3).
  • Cracked or damaged brake caliper (2).
  1. If any of the conditions listed are found then the brake caliper mounting hardware requires replacement.
  2. Install the disc brake pads to the brake caliper mounting bracket.
  3. Install the disc brake caliper to the brake caliper mounting bracket. Refer to Front Brake Caliper Replacement.

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