Buick Encore Owners & Service Manuals

Buick Encore: The map process - overview

Repair Association, Inc. (AMRA). Participation in the Motorist Assurance Program comes from retailers, suppliers, independent repair facilities, vehicle manufacturers and industry associations.

Our organization's mission is to strengthen the relationship between the consumer and the auto repair industry.

We produce materials that give motorists the information and encouragement to take greater responsibility for their vehicles-through proper, manufacturer / recommended maintenance. We encourage participating service and repair shops (including franchisees and dealers) to adopt (1) a Pledge of Assurance to their Customers and (2) the Motorist Assurance Program Standards of Service. All participating service providers have agreed to subscribe to this Pledge and to adhere to the promulgated Standards of Service demonstrating to their customers that they are serious about customer satisfaction.

These Standards of Service require that an inspection of the vehicle's (problem) system be made and the results communicated to the customer according to industry standards. Given that the industry did not have such standards, the Motorist Assurance Program successfully promulgated industry inspection communication standards in 1994-95 for the following systems: Exhaust, Brakes, ABS, Steering and Suspension, Engine Maintenance and Performance, HVAC, Electrical Systems, and Drive Train and Transmissions. Further, revisions to all of these inspection communication standards are continually re-published. Participating shops utilize these Uniform Inspection & Communication Standards as part of the inspection process and for communicating their findings to their customers.

The Motorist Assurance Program continues to work cooperatively and proactively with government agencies and consumer groups toward solutions that both benefit the customer and are mutually acceptable to both regulators and industry. We maintain the belief that industry must retain control over how we conduct our business, and we must be viewed as part of the solution and not part of the problem. Meetings with state and other government officials (and their representatives), concerned with auto repair and/or consumer protection, are conducted. Feedback from these sessions is brought back to the association, and the program adjusted as needed.

We welcome you to join us as we continue our outreach... with your support, both the automotive repair industry and your customers will reap the benefits. Please visit MAP at our Internet site www.motorist.org or contact us at:

201 Park Washington Court

Falls Church, Virginia 22046

THE MAP PROCESS - OVERVIEW OF SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS

It is MAP policy that all exhaust, brake, steering, suspension, wheel alignment, drive-train, engine performance and maintenance, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and electrical services be offered and performed under the standards and procedures specified in these sections.

Before any service is performed on a vehicle, an inspection of the appropriate system must be performed. The results of this inspection must be explained to the customer and documented on an inspection form. The condition of the vehicle and its components will indicate what services/part replacements may be "Required" or "Suggested". In addition, suggestions may be made to satisfy the requests expressed by the customer.

When a component is suggested or required to be repaired or replaced, the decision to repair or replace must be made in the customer's best interest, and at his or her choice given the options available.

This section lists the various parts and conditions that indicate a required or suggested service or part replacement. Although this list is extensive, it is not fully inclusive. In addition to this list, a technician may make a suggestion. However, any suggestions must be based on substantial and informed experience or the vehicle manufacturer's recommended service interval and must be documented. However, any suggestions must be documented and must be based on substantial and informed experience or the vehicle manufacturer's recommended service interval. NOTE: Vehicle manufacturer service intervals are often categorized as either Normal or Severe. Frequently, motorists are unaware that their driving patterns and habits meet the criteria for following Severe Service schedules. Severe Service is generally defined as, but not limited to one or more of the following conditions: Driving in stop-and-go traffic; frequent short trips; high-speed driving; extreme temperatures; towing or hauling.

Some conditions indicate that service or part replacement is required because the part in question is no longer providing the function for which it is intended, does not meet a vehicle manufacturer's design specification or is missing.

  • Example: An exhaust pipe has corroded severely and has a hole in it through which exhaust gases are leaking. Replacement of the exhaust pipe in this case is required due to functional failure.
  • Example: A brake rotor has been worn to the point where it measures less than the vehicle manufacturer's discard specifications. Replacement of the rotor is required because it does not meet design specifications.

Some conditions indicate that a service or part replacement is suggested because the part is close to the end of its useful life or addresses a customer's need, convenience or request. If a customer's vehicle has one of these conditions, the procedure may be only to suggest service.

  • Example: An exhaust pipe is rusted, corroded or weak, but no leaks are present. In this case, the exhaust pipe has not failed. However, there is evidence that the pipe may need replacement in the near future.

    Replacement of the pipe may be suggested for the customer's convenience in avoiding a future problem.

  • Example: The customer desires improved ride and/or handling, but the vehicle's shocks or struts have not failed. In this case, replacement may be suggested to satisfy the customer's wishes. In this case, replacement of the shocks or struts may not be sold as a requirement.

A customer, of course, has the choice of whether or not a shop will service his or her vehicle. He or she may decide not to follow some of your suggestions. When a repair is required, a MAP shop must refuse partial service on that system if, in the judgment of the service provider, proceeding with the work could create or continue an unsafe condition. When a procedure states that required or suggested repair or replacement is recommended, the customer must be informed of the generally acceptable repair/replacement options whether or not performed by the shop.

The following reasons may be used for required and suggested services. These codes are shown in the "Code" column of the MAP Uniform Inspection & Communications Standards that follow:

THE MAP PROCESS - OVERVIEW OF SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS

Maintenance overview

ANTIFREEZE/COOLANT

The main function of the Engine Cooling System is to carry heat away from the engine and maintain the desired operating temperature. This is accomplished by circulating antifreeze/coolant through the engine, where heat is generated, and carrying it to the radiator to be cooled.

Over the past decade internal combustion engines have become more fuel efficient; however, most of the energy in the gasoline (perhaps 70%) is converted into heat, and the cooling system keeps the engine from overheating by transferring this heat to the air. But the cooling system also has several other functions.

An automobile engine runs best at a fairly high temperature. When the engine is cold, components wear out faster, and the engine is less efficient and releases more pollutants into the atmosphere. The cooling system is designed to allow the engine to heat up as quickly as possible, and then to keep the engine at a constant temperature.

Modern automobiles operate in a wide variety of ambient temperatures, from well below freezing to well over 100 F. The fluid used to cool the engine must have a very low freezing point, a high boiling point, and it must have the ability to transfer a lot of heat.

An adequate amount of an antifreeze/coolant and water mixture is necessary to reduce the possibility of engine overheating and freezing, and to prevent rust and corrosion in the cooling system.

Water is one of the most effective fluids for holding heat, but water freezes at too high a temperature to be used in car engines. The fluid that most cars use is a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, also known as antifreeze.

By adding ethylene glycol to water, the boiling and freezing points are improved significantly.

The temperature of the coolant can sometimes reach 250 to 275 F (121 to 135 C). Even with ethylene glycol added, these temperatures would boil the coolant. The cooling system is pressurized, which further raises the boiling point of the coolant. Most automobiles have around 14 to 15 pounds per square inch (psi), which raises the boiling point approximately 45 F so the coolant can endure the high temperatures produced in the engine.

Fig. 1: Typical Cooling System
Fig. 1: Typical Cooling System

Hoses showing obvious signs of wear such as cracks, cuts, stiffness, bulges, excessive softness or abrasions should be replaced.

The National Automotive Radiator Service Association (NARSA) recommends a seven (7)-point preventative cooling system maintenance check at least once every two years. The program is designed to identify any areas that need attention, and consists of:

  • a visual inspection of all cooling system components, including belts and hoses
  • a radiator cap test to check for the recommended system pressure level
  • a thermostat check for proper opening and closing
  • a pressure test to identify any external leaks to the cooling system parts; including the radiator, water pump, engine coolant passages, radiator and heater hoses and heater core
  • an internal leak test to check for combustion gas leakage into the cooling system
  • an engine fan test for proper operation h a system power flush and refill with car manufacturer's recommended concentration of coolant

VISUAL INSPECTION

What you are looking for is the condition of the belts and hoses. The radiator hoses and heater hoses are easily inspected just by opening the hood and looking. You want to be sure that the hoses have no cracking or splitting and that there is no bulging or swelling at the ends. If there is any sign of problems, the hose should be replaced with the correct part number for the year, make and model of the vehicle. Never use a universal hose unless it is an emergency and a proper molded hose is not available.

Heater hoses are usually straight runs and are not molded, so a universal hose is fine to use and often is all that is available. Make sure that you use the proper inside diameter for the hose being replaced. For either the radiator hoses or the heater hoses, make sure that you route the replacement hose in the same way that the original hose was running. Position the hose away from any obstruction that can possibly damage it and always use new hose clamps. After you refill the cooling system with coolant, do a pressure test to make sure that there are no leaks.

RADIATOR CAP TEST

A radiator cap is designed to maintain pressure in the cooling system at a certain maximum pressure. If the cooling system exceeds that pressure, a valve in the cap opens to bleed the excessive pressure into the reserve tank. Once the engine has cooled off, a negative pressure begins to develop in the cooling system. When this happens, a second valve in the cap allows the coolant to be siphoned back into the radiator from the coolant reservoir. If the cap should fail, the engine can easily overheat. A pressure test of the radiator cap is a quick way to tell if the cap is doing its job. It should be able to hold its rated pressure for two minutes.

ENGINE FAN

The radiator cooling fan is an important part of the cooling system operation. While a fan is not really needed while a vehicle is traveling down the highway, it is extremely important when driving slowly or stopped with the engine running. In the past, the fan was attached to the engine and was driven by the fan belt. The speed of the fan was directly proportional to the speed of the engine; a viscous fan drive was developed in order to disengage the fan when it was not needed.

With computer controls, the engine-driven fans gave way to electric fans mounted directly on the radiator. A temperature sensor determined when the engine was beginning to run too hot and turned on the fan to draw air through the radiator to cool the engine. On many cars, there were two fans mounted side by side to make sure that the radiator had a uniform air flow for the width of the unit.

When the car is in motion, the speed of the air entering the grill is usually sufficient to keep the coolant at the proper temperature and the fans shut off. When the vehicle is stopped, there is no air flow and the fan is turned on when the engine reaches a designated temperature.

When the A/C is turned on the fan circuit would power the fans regardless of engine temperature. The air conditioning system always requires a good air flow through the condenser mounted in front of the radiator. If the air flow stopped, the air-conditioned air coming through the dash outlets would immediately start warming up.

Fig. 2: Typical Cooling Fan
Fig. 2: Typical Cooling Fan

COOLING SYSTEM POWER FLUSH AND REFILL

Old coolant can be replaced by draining it out and replacing it with fresh coolant; however, power flushing will remove all the old coolant and pull out any sediment and scale along with it. Power flushing requires special equipment and generally requires the thermostat to be removed, the lower radiator hose disconnected, and the flush machine connected in line. Water and, sometimes, a cleaning agent are pumped through the cooling system in a reverse path from the normal coolant flow. When completed, the hose is reconnected and a new thermostat is installed. The cooling system is refilled with the appropriate amount of antifreeze to bring the coolant to the proper mixture of antifreeze and water. For most vehicles and most climates, the mixture is 50 /50. In colder climates, more antifreeze is used, but must never exceed 75 percent antifreeze. Follow the vehicle manufacturers' procedures and recommendations.

Belts (except timing belts)

On most older vehicles, the water pump is driven by a V belt or serpentine belt on the front of the engine that is also responsible for driving the alternator, power steering pump and air conditioner compressor. These types of belts are easy to inspect and replace if they are worn. You are looking for dry cracking on the inside surface of the belt.

On later vehicles, the water pump is often driven by the timing belt. This belt usually has a specific life expectancy at which time it must be replaced to insure that it does not fail. Since the timing belt is inside the engine and will require partial engine disassembly to inspect, it is very important to replace it at the correct interval.

Low belt tension, contamination and belt vibration are common sources of belt noise. A screeching or squealing noise that occurs when pulling away from a stop normally indicates a lack of tension; check belt tension and automatic tensioners.

A grinding noise can result from damaged bearings, which must be replaced, aligned and lubricated to eliminate the noise and further damage. Vibration and noise can develop over time as drive components such as pulleys and spring tensioners wear, bearings and brackets loosen, or belts wear and stretch.

Fig. 3: Typical Accessory Drive Belt
Fig. 3: Typical Accessory Drive Belt

The angle between belt span and pulley is the critical factor responsible for causing the "chirp" associated with misalignment noise. The presence of high humidity (or a damp belt) often increases the likelihood for misalignment noise to occur. Misalignment angle can result from many different combinations of pulley positions - parallel and angular are two typical examples.

Fig. 4: Accessory Drive Belt Misalignment
Fig. 4: Accessory Drive Belt Misalignment

Whenever a vehicle owner complains of belt noise, determine the type of noise and under what circumstances it occurs. The correction for a noise problem caused by belt misalignment is not likely to resolve a slip noise problem that may be caused by insufficient tension or other problem. The highest occurrence of belt noise due to misalignment comes from short belt spans entering large diameter pulleys. In the case of severe misalignment, repositioning of drive components may be required. Pulley alignment and tension must be correct for the drive to operate properly.

BELT TENSIONER

Belt tensioners are used to maintain constant tension on the belt, extending both belt and accessory drive bearing life.

NOTE: A tensioner cannot be rebuilt since internal parts are not available. Never try to disassemble a tensioner unit. Injury may result.

Fig. 5: Typical Accessory Dive Belt Tensioner
Fig. 5: Typical Accessory Dive Belt Tensioner

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

Fig. 6: Crosssection Of Automatic Transmission - Typical
Fig. 6: Crosssection Of Automatic Transmission - Typical

Automatic transmission fluid (ATF) is the fluid used in vehicles with a self-shifting or automatic transmission.

It is typically colored red or green to distinguish it from motor oil and other fluids in the vehicle. The fluid is a highly refined mineral oil optimized for the special requirements of an automatic transmission, such as valve operation, clutch and band operation, torque converter and gear lubrication. ATF is also used as a hydraulic medium in some power-assisted steering systems and as a lubricant in some 4WD transfer cases.

ATF usually contains an additive package with anti-foam additives, detergents and dispersants, anti-oxidation compounds, surfactants and petroleum dye. There are many specifications for ATF, such as the DEXRON and MERCON series, and the vehicle manufacturer will identify the ATF specification appropriate for each vehicle.

The vehicle's owner's manual will typically list the ATF specification(s) that are recommended by the manufacturer. Some manufacturers will recommend different ATF products for different kinds of vehicle use, such as frequent trailer towing or vehicles that are used for longer periods between routine maintenance.

Overused ATF often has reduced lubrication properties and abrasive friction materials (from clutches and bands) suspended in it; failure to replace such fluid will accelerate transmission wear and could eventually ruin a transmission. Color is not an indication of the service life of an ATF as most ATF products will darken with use. The manufacturer's recommended service interval is a more reliable measure of ATF life.

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID EXCHANGE & FILTER REPLACEMENT

Automatic transmission fluid lubricates, cools and cleans internal components of the transmission. It also helps to maintain the hydraulic pressure necessary for the transmission to function. The additives in the transmission fluid can be depleted over time and should be replaced following the manufacturer's recommended service interval.

ENGINE OIL

The temperature range the oil is exposed to in most vehicles can be wide, ranging from cold ambient temperatures in the winter before the vehicle is started up to hot operating temperatures when the vehicle is fully warmed up in hot summer weather. A "specific" oil will have high viscosity when cold and a low viscosity at the engine's operating temperature. The difference in viscosities for any single-grade oil is too large between the extremes of temperature. To bring the difference in viscosities closer together, additives called viscosity index improvers are added to the oil. This creates "multi-grade" oil which has the viscosity of the first number when cold and the viscosity of the second number when hot. This allows one type of oil to be generally used all year.

In engines, there is inevitably some exposure of the oil to products of internal combustion, and microscopic particles from black soot accumulate in the oil during operation. Also the rubbing of metal engine parts inevitably produces some microscopic metallic particles from the wearing of the surfaces. Such particles could circulate in the oil and grind against the part surfaces causing wear. The oil filter removes many of the particles and sludge, but eventually the oil filter can become clogged, if used for extremely long periods. The motor oil and especially the additives also undergo thermal and mechanical degradation. For these reasons, the oil and the oil filter need to be periodically replaced.

Most vehicle manufacturers utilize a time/mileage-based schedule. Time-based intervals account for both the short trip driver who does fewer miles, but builds up more contaminates, as well as the long highway trips that are much easier on the oil. Many vehicle manufacturers list somewhat higher intervals for changing of oil and filter, with "severe" service requiring more frequent changes. This generally applies to vehicles that are mostly used in "Stopand- Go" driving conditions; experience extended periods of idling; or used for short trips of under 10 miles, where the oil does not get to full operating temperature and other adverse conditions.

Some vehicle manufacturers have installed engine Oil Life Monitors using computer calculations to estimate the oil's condition based on the factors which degrade it. Conditions such as RPMs, temperatures, and trip length are factored in to the equation; and one system adds an optical sensor for determining the clarity of the oil in the engine.

Fig. 7: Engine Oil Life Monitor Display Example
Fig. 7: Engine Oil Life Monitor Display Example

AIR FILTERS

The engine air filter prevents dirt from entering the engine's cylinders, where it would cause mechanical wear and oil contamination. Most fuel injected vehicles use a pleated paper filter element in the form of a flat panel.

This filter is usually placed inside a plastic box connected to the throttle body with an intake tube. Older vehicles that use carburetors or throttle body fuel injection typically use a cylindrical air filter, usually a few inches high and between 6 and 16 inches in diameter, positioned above the carburetor or throttle body and may incorporate ducting to provide cool and/or warm inlet air, and secured with a metal or plastic lid.

A Pleated paper filter element is used for most automobile engine air cleaners, because they are efficient, easy to service, and cost-effective. The pleated-paper filter is sized appropriately for the airflow volumes encountered in a particular application and present only minor restriction to air flow until the filter has become clogged with dirt.

CABIN AIR FILTER

The cabin air filter is typically a pleated-paper filter that is placed in the outside-air intake for the vehicle's passenger compartment. Some of these filters are rectangular and similar in shape to the combustion air filter.

Others are uniquely shaped to fit the available space of particular vehicles' outside-air intakes. Clogged or dirty cabin air filters can significantly reduce airflow from the cabin vents, as well as introduce allergens into the cabin air stream.

Brake fluid

The purpose of brake fluid is to:

  1. Utilize hydraulic pressure to apply force on brake components that use a friction material to slow the vehicle
  2. Protect the brake system from corrosion

Motor vehicle brake fluids are hygroscopic and absorb moisture when exposed to the atmosphere and in service.

Water contamination from any source, including mechanical or accidental additions of free water, will appreciably lower the original boiling point of the brake fluid and increase its viscosity at low ambient temperatures. Water contamination may cause corrosion of brake cylinder bores and pistons, and may seriously affect the braking efficiency and safety of the brake actuating system. While moisture is definitely an issue with brake fluids, no consistent and accurate measurement identifying the percentage of moisture that is detrimental to brake fluid performance has been found in the literature. In addition, no specification exists for an in-use brake fluid boiling point that can be identified by a testing procedure and therefore no recommendation for replacement based on moisture content can be made with confidence.

It has been demonstrated that corrosion inhibitors in brake fluid deplete over time and can be severely depleted by 36 months. The depletion of corrosion inhibitors results in corrosion. Copper is not found in new brake fluid and is used as a brazing alloy in the brake lines, which represent a high surface area for brake fluid contact.

Copper is the first metal to corrode in a brake system, and is a principle contaminate in brake fluid. Copper levels increase slowly and stably over time. The slow and steady increase in copper levels provides a means to predict the age of brake fluid under normal conditions. The age of the brake fluid can help determine when brake fluid should be serviced according to OEM recommendations when applicable. Copper can also directly affect ABS components as it can plate to the valve and valve seats.

Iron levels begin to sharply increase when the copper levels reach 150-250 ppm indicating corrosion of iron components. This also allows copper levels to be used to predict when iron levels will increase or the start of component corrosion and the depletion of corrosion inhibitors. Once iron corrosion begins copper acts as a catalyst to speed corrosion. At this point (iron corrosion) it is evident that the brake fluid no longer performs the intended purpose of protecting the system from corrosion.

A copper content of 200 ppm or greater indicates a depletion of corrosion inhibitors in the brake fluid and Brake Fluid Replacement is Required.

BATTERY

The automotive battery is an electrochemical device that produces voltage and delivers current. In an automotive battery the electrochemical action can be reversed, recharging the battery, providing many years of service. Batteries emit hydrogen gas while charging and the battery case cannot be completely sealed. Batteries (maintenance free) have small vents on the side forcing the gases to go through baffles to escape. This process allows the liquid to condense and flow back to the bottom of the battery.

The purpose of the battery is to supply current to the starter motor, provide current to the ignition system while cranking, to supply additional current when the demand is higher than the alternator can supply and to act as an electrical reservoir. Batteries are rated in cold cranking amps. This represents the current the battery can produce for 30 seconds at 0 degrees before the battery voltage drops below 7.2 volts.

Fig. 8: Typical Battery Components
Fig. 8: Typical Battery Components

BATTERY CABLES

Battery cables are large diameter, multi-stranded wire which conveys the high current (250+ amps) necessary to operate the starter motor. Some battery cables will have a smaller wire, soldered to the terminal, which is used to either operate a smaller device or to provide an additional ground. When the smaller cable burns it indicates a high resistance in the heavy cable.

Even maintenance free batteries need periodic inspection and cleaning to insure they stay in good working order. Inspect the battery to see that it is clean and that it is held securely in its carrier. Some corrosion naturally collects around the battery. Electrolyte condensation contains corrosive sulfuric acid, which eats away the metal of battery terminals, cable ends and battery hold-down parts.

POWER STEERING

Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on cars by using an external power source to assist in turning the wheels. Most vehicles have power steering and the trend to front wheel drive, greater vehicle mass and wider tires means that modern vehicles would be extremely difficult to maneuver at low speeds (e.g. when parking) without assistance.

POWER STEERING FLUID

Power Steering Fluid is the hydraulic component in power steering systems and is charged with pressure transfer and component protection. It fails when it stops performing one of its tasks. When a fluid becomes oxidized, its resistance to flow is greater and it decreases its ability to protect components and transfer pressure.

The more common failure mode of PSF is internal and external contamination, and excess particles in fluid promote component wear and can lead to component failures, including seals, shafts and gears.

Most power steering systems work by using a belt driven pump to provide hydraulic pressure to the system.

This hydraulic pressure is generated by a rotary-vane pump which is driven by the vehicle's engine. As the speed of the engine increases, the pressure in the hydraulic fluid also increases, hence a relief valve is incorporated into the system to allow excess pressure to be bled away. Some of the hydraulic systems also include an electronic pressure valve which can reduce the hydraulic pressure of the power steering lines as the vehicle's speed increases (Variable assist power steering).

Electric Power Steering uses sensors to detect the motion and torque of the steering column and a computer module applies electric motor to provide power assist. This allows variable assist power steering to be applied depending on driving conditions. In the event of component failure, a mechanical linkage such as a rack and pinion serves as a back-up in a manner similar to that of hydraulic systems. Electric power steering is usually limited to smaller vehicles rather than trucks and SUVs. Electric systems have a significant advantage in fuel efficiency because there is no hydraulic pump constantly running, whether assistance is required or not.

Fig. 9: Typical Front Suspension & Steering Components
Fig. 9: Typical Front Suspension & Steering Components

WIPER BLADES

Worn wiper blades are dangerous. Ozone, airborne contaminants, oil, sunlight and dirt all act to weaken and reduce your wiper blades' ability to keep your view unobstructed. And exposure to sunlight and ozone cause the wiper blades to age, even if they're not used much. Weather also plays a critical role in your windshield wiper blades' deterioration. Freezing temperatures make the rubber in your wiper blades hard and brittle, which increases their tendency to crack or tear. Hot weather warps the rubber and prevents the blade from wiping your windshield cleanly.

Heavy use is hard on the wipers because dust, abrasives, road grime and bug juice wear away the cutting edge the blade needs to wipe cleanly. Even road dirt acts like an abrasive to wear away the flat surface necessary for a good squeegee effect. Rubber also deteriorates over time. As blades age, they lose their flexibility and are less able to wipe cleanly. They may develop a permanent set or curvature, which prevents full contact with your windshield.

A wiper blades ability to clean the glass depends on:

The slope and area of the windshield: Windshields are sloped for improved aerodynamics and a "cab-forward" windshield with a lot of surface area directs more wind against the wipers, and can force the blades away from the windshield at high speeds unless the wiper system is designed to resist lift.

The amount of spring tension on the wiper arm: This is important to keep the wiper blade in tight contact with the windshield and provide a squeegee effect.

The number of pressure points or claws holding the blade: The more claws a blade has, the broader the area over which the pressure of the wiper arm is spread. More claws also provide increased flexibility so the blade can more easily follow the curvature of a large, sloping windshield for full side-to-side contact.

Routine inspection checksheet

Fig. 10: Routine Inspection Checksheet (1 Of 2)
Fig. 10: Routine Inspection Checksheet (1 Of 2)

Fig. 11: Routine Inspection Checksheet (2 Of 2)
Fig. 11: Routine Inspection Checksheet (2 Of 2)

ROUTINE INSPECTION - UICS

BRAKE SYSTEMS

NOTE: Some states may have specifications that differ from OEM. Check your local/state regulations. Where state or local laws are stricter, they take precedence over these guidelines.

BRAKE FLUID

NOTE: Most manufacturers prohibit the use of DOT 5 brake fluid in a system equipped with ABS. DOT 3, DOT 4, and DOT 5.1 brake fluids are clear or light amber in color. DOT 5 brake fluid is violet in color. Correct fluid type is normally stamped on the master cylinder cover.

NOTE: Fluid Flush - a process using a sufficient volume of fluid to help remove contaminants and replacing the contaminated fluid with new fluid of the same type and specification. At times a chemical may be used to enhance removal.

NOTE: Fluid Exchange/Replace - draining (evacuating) old fluid and replacing it with new fluid of the correct type and specification.

ROUTINE INSPECTION - UICS

ROUTINE INSPECTION - UICS

BULBS AND LEDS

NOTE: Does not include soldered-in components.

BULBS AND LEDS

BULBS AND LEDS

HOSES

HOSES

LENSES

LENSES

LENSES

LUG NUT

LUG NUT

MASTER CYLINDER COVER GASKET

MASTER CYLINDER COVER GASKET

PARKING BRAKE CABLE

PARKING BRAKE CABLE

PARKING BRAKE CABLE

VACUUM HOSES

VACUUM HOSES

WHEEL ATTACHMENT HARDWARE

NOTE: For conditions noted below, also check condition of wheel stud holes. Proper lug nut torque is essential. Follow manufacturer's torque specifications and tightening sequence. DO NOT lubricate threads unless specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

WHEEL ATTACHMENT HARDWARE

WHEEL ATTACHMENT HARDWARE

WHEEL BEARINGS, RACES AND SEALS

NOTE: When replacing or repacking wheel bearings, grease seal replacement is required. You are not required to replace these components in axle sets.

Determine the need to replace based upon the individual component conditions.

WHEEL BEARINGS, RACES AND SEALS

DRIVETRAIN AND TRANSMISSION

NOTE: When a procedure states that a required or suggested repair or replacement is recommended, the basis for the recommendation MUST be explained to the customer. If the customer asks whether there are alternatives to the recommendation, generally acceptable repair/replacement options must be explained, whether performed or not by the shop.

NOTE: Whenever transmission or drive-train service is performed that affects the suspension alignment, for example, removing the engine cradle, it is required that the alignment be checked and corrected if necessary.

NOTE: The conditions listed for the components included in this section assume that the problem has been isolated to the specific component through proper testing.

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDERS

CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDERS

COOLER LINES

COOLER LINES

COOLER LINES

COOLERS

COOLERS

COOLERS

DIFFERENTIAL FLUID

DIFFERENTIAL FLUID

DIFFERENTIAL FLUID

DRAIN PLUGS AND GASKETS

DRAIN PLUGS AND GASKETS

FILTERS AND SCREENS

FILTERS AND SCREENS

FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS

FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS

FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS

HOSES, LINES, AND TUBES

HOSES, LINES, AND TUBES

HOSES, LINES, AND TUBES

HYDRAULIC FLUID

HYDRAULIC FLUID

HYDRAULIC FLUID

LUBRICANTS

LUBRICANTS

LUBRICANTS

MANUAL TRANSMISSION FLUID

MANUAL TRANSMISSION FLUID

MANUAL TRANSMISSION FLUID

MOUNTS (ENGINE, TRANSAXLE AND TRANSMISSION)

MOUNTS (ENGINE, TRANSAXLE AND TRANSMISSION)

MOUNTS (ENGINE, TRANSAXLE AND TRANSMISSION)

TRANSFER CASE FLUID

TRANSFER CASE FLUID

TRANSFER CASE FLUID

VACUUM HOSES

VACUUM HOSES

Electrical systems

BATTERIES

NOTE: Proper operation of any electrical system or component can be affected by battery condition. The battery(ies) must meet or exceed minimum specification for vehicle as equipped and test to that specific battery's CCA.

Definition of Terms

Battery Performance Testing - Testing that determines whether or not a battery meets both vehicle OEM and battery manufacturer's specifications.

Cold Cranking Amp (CCA) Rating - The number of amperes a new, fully charged battery at 0º F ( -17.8º C) can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least a voltage of 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery).

Cranking Amps (CA) - The number of amperes a new, fully charged battery, typically at 32º F (0º C) can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least a voltage of 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12volt battery).

OEM Cranking Amps - The minimum CCA required by the original vehicle manufacturer for a specific vehicle.

BATTERIES

BATTERIES

BATTERIES

BATTERY CABLES

BATTERY CABLES

BATTERY CABLES

BATTERY TRAYS AND HOLD DOWN HARDWARE

BATTERY TRAYS AND HOLD DOWN HARDWARE

BULBS, SEALED BEAMS AND LEDS

NOTE: Does not include soldered-in components.

BULBS, SEALED BEAMS AND LEDS

BULBS, SEALED BEAMS AND LEDS

BULBS, SEALED BEAMS AND LEDS

FUSES, FUSIBLE LINKS AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS

FUSES, FUSIBLE LINKS AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS

FUSES, FUSIBLE LINKS AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS

GROUND CABLES AND STRAPS

GROUND CABLES AND STRAPS

GROUND STRAPS

GROUND STRAPS

GROUND STRAPS

LENSES

LENSES

SEALED BEAMS

NOTE: Does not include soldered-in components.

SEALED BEAMS

SEALED BEAMS

SEALED BEAMS

WASHER PUMPS

WASHER PUMPS

WASHER PUMPS

WIPER ARMS AND BLADES

NOTE: Windshield coatings or waxes can cause blades to not function as intended.

Clean surface before making final judgment about blade replacement.

WIPER ARMS AND BLADES

WIPER ARMS AND BLADES

WIPER HOSES AND NOZZLES

WIPER HOSES AND NOZZLES

WIPER PUMP RESERVOIRS

WIPER PUMP RESERVOIRS

ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND MAINTENANCE

NOTE: CHEMICAL ENGINE DECARBONIZATION is a process utilizing chemicals to remove soft and semi-hardened gum, varnish, resin and carbon deposits from the air/fuel delivery systems and combustion chambers of gasoline internal combustion engines, providing benefits that include improved fuel economy, performance and driveability and reduced emissions. This process is performed to remove deposits preferably prior to deposit accumulation and hardening which may require costly mechanical deposit removal or component replacement.

NOTE: SUGGEST Chemical Engine Decarbonization service every 15,000 miles or 12 months.

NOTE: CONTAMINATED OIL SYSTEM SERVICE is an event based process (beyond that of a normal oil and filter change) performed to remove coolant, water or fuel contamination. Contamination increases oil's oxidation rate and has been shown to result in increased engine wear and reduced oil flow. CAUTION: Some OEM's (including GM and Honda) have issued Technical Service Bulletins advising that Chemical Crankcase Flushing may damage some engine components and that such damage will not be covered by the manufacturer's new car warranty.

ACCESSORY BELTS

ACCESSORY BELTS

AIR FILTER ELEMENTS

AIR FILTER ELEMENTS

AIR FILTER ELEMENTS

AIR FILTER GASKETS

AIR FILTER GASKETS

AIR FILTER HOUSINGS AND GASKETS

AIR FILTER HOUSINGS AND GASKETS

AIR PUMP BELTS

AIR PUMP BELTS

AIR PUMP BELTS

BATTERIES

NOTE: Proper operation of any electrical system or component can be affected by battery condition. The battery(ies) must meet or exceed minimum specification for vehicle as equipped and test to that specific battery's CCA.

Definition of Terms

Battery Performance Testing - Testing that determines whether or not a battery meets both vehicle OEM and battery manufacturer's specifications.

Cold Cranking Amp (CCA) Rating - The number of amperes a new, fully charged battery at 0º F ( -17.8º C) can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least a voltage of 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery).

Cranking Amps (CA) - The number of amperes a new, fully charged battery, typically at 32º F (0º C) can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least a voltage of 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12volt battery).

OEM Cranking Amps - The minimum CCA required by the original vehicle manufacturer for a specific vehicle.

BATTERIES

BATTERIES

BATTERIES

BATTERY CONNECTORS

BATTERY CONNECTORS

BATTERY CONNECTORS

BELT IDLER ASSEMBLIES (ACCESSORY AND CAM BELTS)

BELT IDLER ASSEMBLIES (ACCESSORY AND CAM BELTS)

BELT IDLER ASSEMBLIES (ACCESSORY AND CAM BELTS)

BELT TENSIONERS (ACCESSORY AND CAM BELT)

BELT TENSIONERS (ACCESSORY AND CAM BELT)

CHEMICAL ENGINE DECARBONIZATION

NOTE: Chemical engine decarbonization is a process utilizing chemicals to remove soft and semi-hardened gum, varnish, resin and carbon deposits from the air/fuel delivery systems and combustion chambers of gasoline internal combustion engines, providing benefits that include improved fuel economy, performance and driveability and reduced emissions. This process is performed to remove deposits preferably prior to deposit accumulation and hardening which may require costly mechanical deposit removal or component replacement.

NOTE: SUGGEST Chemical Engine Decarbonization service every 15,000 miles or 12 months.

COMBUSTION CHAMBER CLEANING

NOTE: See CHEMICAL ENGINE DECARBONIZATION.

COOLANT RECOVERY TANKS

COOLANT RECOVERY TANKS

COOLANT

COOLANT

DISTRIBUTOR CAPS

DISTRIBUTOR CAPS

DISTRIBUTOR CAPS

DISTRIBUTOR ROTORS

DISTRIBUTOR ROTORS

DISTRIBUTOR ROTORS

ENGINE COOLING SYSTEMS

NOTE: Overheating, poor engine performance, and insufficient cabin heat can be affected by, but are not limited to, all of the components in the engine cooling system.

ENGINE DECARBONIZATION

NOTE: See CHEMICAL ENGINE DECARBONIZATION.

ENGINE OIL DRAIN PLUGS AND GASKETS

ENGINE OIL DRAIN PLUGS AND GASKETS

ENGINE OIL FILTERS AND CANISTERS

ENGINE OIL FILTERS AND CANISTERS

ENGINE OIL FILTERS AND CANISTERS

ENGINE OIL

ENGINE OIL

FUEL FILTERS

FUEL FILTERS

FUEL FILTERS

FUEL INJECTOR CLEANING

NOTE: See CHEMICAL ENGINE DECARBONIZATION.

FUEL INJECTORS

FUEL INJECTORS

FUEL INJECTORS

FUEL SYSTEM CLEANING SERVICE

NOTE: See CHEMICAL ENGINE DECARBONIZATION.

HOSE CLAMPS

HOSE CLAMPS

HOSE CONNECTORS

HOSE CONNECTORS

HOSE CONNECTORS

HOSE COUPLERS

HOSE COUPLERS

HOSES AND TUBES (FUEL LINES, RADIATOR, VACUUM, BY-PASS, HEATER, RECOVERY TANK AND OIL COOLERS)

HOSES AND TUBES (FUEL LINES, RADIATOR, VACUUM, BY-PASS, HEATER, RECOVERY TANK AND OIL COOLERS)

HOSES AND TUBES (FUEL LINES, RADIATOR, VACUUM, BY-PASS, HEATER, RECOVERY TANK AND OIL COOLERS)

IGNITION WIRES (SECONDARY)

IGNITION WIRES (SECONDARY)

IGNITION WIRES (SECONDARY)

INTAKE CLEANING

NOTE: See CHEMICAL ENGINE DECARBONIZATION.

O2 SENSORS

O2 SENSORS

O2 SENSORS

PCV BREATHER ELEMENTS

PCV BREATHER ELEMENTS

PCV BREATHER ELEMENTS

PCV VALVES

PCV VALVES

RADIATOR CAPS AND PRESSURIZED EXPANSION TANK CAPS

RADIATOR CAPS AND PRESSURIZED EXPANSION TANK CAPS

SPARK PLUGS

NOTE: You are not required to replace spark plugs in sets. However, you may suggest replacement of the other plugs for preventive maintenance.

SPARK PLUGS

THERMOSTATS AND HOUSINGS

THERMOSTATS AND HOUSINGS

THROTTLE BODY CLEANING

NOTE: See CHEMICAL ENGINE DECARBONIZATION.

TIMING BELTS

TIMING BELTS

VACUUM HOSES, TUBES AND CONNECTIONS (NON-METALLIC)

VACUUM HOSES, TUBES AND CONNECTIONS (NON-METALLIC)

EXHAUST SYSTEMS

WARNING: Federal EPA rules prohibit altering an exhaust system in any way that defeats the emission reduction components of a vehicle. Be sure to review and adhere to EPA policy on removing and replacing catalytic converters. Where state or local laws are stricter, they take precedence over these guidelines.

NOTE: Some exhaust systems are of a welded design. It is not required that the entire system be replaced. Determine the need to replace individual components based on conditions of component.

EXHAUST AND TAIL PIPES

EXHAUST AND TAIL PIPES

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

NOTE: AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FLUSHING utilizes chemicals or refrigerant to remove oil, debris and contaminants from the evaporator, condenser, hoses or metal lines.

NOTE: An INLINE FILTER, both high and low side, protects a/c components from residual debris in the system. An inline filter or suction screen is suggested when a condenser, evaporator, compressor, expansion valve, accumulator/drier, hoses or metal lines is replaced, or if debris is found in the system during an a/c repair. An inline filter is suggested to help prevent future component damage and increase system longevity.

BELTS

BELTS

BELTS

CABIN AIR FILTERS

CABIN AIR FILTERS

COOLANT

COOLANT

EVAPORATOR DRAIN TUBES

EVAPORATOR DRAIN TUBES

EVAPORATOR FILTERS

EVAPORATOR FILTERS

IN-LINE FILTERS

VACUUM HOSES AND TUBES

VACUUM HOSES AND TUBES

STEERING AND SUSPENSION, WHEEL ALIGNMENT, WHEELS AND TIRES

NOTE: Steering and Suspension are complex systems made up of a variety of interdependent components and controls. For proper vehicle handling, ride, and tire wear, a thorough inspection is required whenever suspension work is being performed.

NOTE: Listed repair conditions assume that the problem has been isolated to the specific component by proper testing procedures. When replacing steering and/or suspension components which may affect an alignment angle, you are required to check and adjust alignment as needed. Refer to the OEM specifications for both ride height and alignment angle tolerances.

NOTE: Improper alignment geometry, and/or improper tire/wheel fitment may affect other systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control, Electronic Stability Control, Electronic Traction Control and Variable Ratio Steering. These systems may require attention after an alignment or suspension service is performed. Care must be taken to identify these vehicles/systems before any repair procedures are performed. Failure to follow OEM guidelines when servicing interrelated systems could result in an unsafe condition.

CAUTION: Do not use ride height altering or load compensating components, such as variable rate springs or coil over shocks on vehicles with height sensing or load sensing proportioning- valve equipped braking systems, unless these components are supplied as original equipment.

HYDRAULIC HOSES

HYDRAULIC HOSES

HYDRAULIC HOSES

POWER STEERING BELTS

POWER STEERING BELTS

POWER STEERING FLUID

POWER STEERING FLUID

POWER STEERING FLUID

POWER STEERING HOSES

POWER STEERING HOSES

SHOCK ABSORBERS, STRUT CARTRIDGES AND STRUT ASSEMBLIES

NOTE: You are not required to replace shocks or struts in axle sets. However, when replacing a shock or strut due to the conditions that follow, you may suggest replacement of the other shock or strut on the same axle for one or more of the following: improved performance or preventive maintenance; part is close to the end of its useful life; to extend tire life; to balance ride and handling; or to improve stopping distance. When replacing steering and/or suspension components which may affect an alignment angle, you are required to check and adjust alignment as needed. Refer to the OEM specifications. Under no circumstances should a technician bend struts or strut housings. A vehicle's load-carrying and handling abilities are limited by its suspension, tires, brakes, and driveline. Installing coil over shocks or any other load assist device does not increase the vehicle's load capacity. See the vehicle owner's manual for more details. If vehicle is equipped with OEM coil over shocks, apply the conditions for coil springs from the Springs: Coil, Leaf, and Torsion Bar section of the Steering and Suspension guidelines. If the vehicle is equipped with addon coil over shocks, you may suggest replacement with standard shocks for a spring-related condition.

SHOCK ABSORBERS, STRUT CARTRIDGES AND STRUT ASSEMBLIES

SHOCK ABSORBERS, STRUT CARTRIDGES AND STRUT ASSEMBLIES

SHOCK ABSORBERS, STRUT CARTRIDGES AND STRUT ASSEMBLIES

STRUT RODS

STRUT RODS

STRUT RODS

TIRE PRESSURE MONITORING SYSTEM

NOTE: A Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) is designed to detect and alert the driver should the air pressure level in one or more of the vehicle's tires, up to all four tires, fall below the manufacturer's recommended inflation pressure or another pre-set level.

NOTE: NHTSA does not consider installation of an aftermarket or replacement tire or rim that is not compatible with the TPMS to be a "make inoperative" situation under 49 U.S.C. 30122, provided that the entity does not disable the TPMS malfunction indicator.

TIRE PRESSURE SENSORS

TIRE PRESSURE SENSORS

TIRE PRESSURE SENSORS

Tires

NOTE: These guidelines do not apply to split rims. Some vehicle manufacturers restrict replacement of tires to specific brands, types, or sizes. High pressure temporary compact spare tires should not be used with any other rims or wheels, nor should standard tires, snow tires, wheel covers, or trim rings be used with high pressure compact spare rims or wheels. Attempting to mount a tire of one diameter on a wheel of a different diameter or flange type may result in serious injury or death. Only specially trained persons should de-mount or mount tires. Explosions of tire and wheel assembly can result from improper mounting, possibly causing serious injury or death. Consult the vehicle owner's manual or vehicle placard for correct size, speed rating, designation, and cold inflation pressure of the original tires. Do not exceed the maximum load or inflation capacity of the tire specified by the Tire and Rim Association When replacing tires, it is suggested that the replacement tires match or exceed the OEM speed rating designation. If tires of different speed rating designations are mixed on the same vehicle, the tires may vary in handling characteristics. Do not mix different speed rating designations on the same axle. Do not mix radials with non-radial tires on the same axle, as this may affect vehicle handling and stability. If radial tires and bias or bias-belted ply tires are mixed on the same vehicle, the radials must be on the rear. High-pressure temporary compact spare tires are exempt from this rule. Do not mix size or type (Run Flat, all season, performance, mud and snow) of tires on the same axle. If any flammable emergency tire inflation product has been used on a tire, consult inflation product, manufacturer's product information label for tire deflation procedures to avoid possible serious injury or death. In some vehicles, changing the tire diameter from factory-equipped size can affect drive ability, as well as the performance of ABS and other vehicle systems. Consult the vehicle manufacturer's specifications.

Tires

Tires

Tires

VALVE STEMS

NOTE: Most tire manufacturers suggest replacement of non-TPMS valve stems any time a new tire is installed. For TPMS valve stems, the manufacturer may require replacement of the valve stem, o-ring seals, washers, gaskets, valve cores, compression washers and/or locking nut.

VALVE STEMS

VALVE STEMS

WHEEL ATTACHMENT HARDWARE

NOTE: For conditions noted below, also check condition of wheel stud holes. Proper lug nut torque is essential. Follow recommended torque specifications and tightening sequence. DO NOT lubricate threads unless specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

WHEEL ATTACHMENT HARDWARE

WHEEL BEARINGS, RACES AND SEALS

NOTE: When replacing or repacking wheel bearings, grease seal replacement is required. You are not required to replace these components in axle sets.

Determine the need to replace based upon the individual component conditions that follow.

WHEEL BEARINGS, RACES AND SEALS

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