Buick Encore Owners & Service Manuals

Buick Encore: Engine Heating and Cooling - Description and operation

Buick Encore 2012-2019 Service Manual / Engine / Engine Heating and Cooling / Engine Heating and Cooling - Description and operation

Cooling fan description and operation (LUJ OR LUV)

The engine cooling fan system is composed of one cooling fan, a series of 5 relays, the engine control module (ECM), and the associated wiring. The cooling fan assembly includes two resistors. This combination of components enables the ECM to operate the cooling fan at 3 speeds using two fan control circuits.

Low Speed Operation

The ECM applies ground at the FAN 1 control circuit for the coil side of the cooling fan relay. The energized cooling fan relay completes a ground, through the switch side of the relay, for the coils of the cooling fan low speed relay and the cooling fan speed control relay. The speed control relay activates and supplies B+ to the coil side of the cooling fan high speed relay. The high speed relay remains inactive because the ECM is not commanding the FAN 2 control circuit ON. The energized low speed relay switch closes to supply B+ through the internal low speed resistor of the engine cooling fan motor. The result is cooling fan operation at a reduced speed.

Medium Speed Operation

The ECM applies ground at the FAN 2 control circuit for the coil side of the cooling fan high speed, and medium speed relays. The high speed relay remains inactive because the ECM is not commanding the FAN 1 control circuit ON. The energized medium speed relay switch closes to supply B+ through the internal medium speed resistor of the engine cooling fan motor. The result is cooling fan operation at a medium speed.

High Speed Operation

The ECM applies ground at the FAN 1 control circuit for the coil side of the cooling fan relay. The energized cooling fan relay completes a ground, through the switch side of the relay, for the coil of the cooling fan speed control relay. The energized speed control relay switch closes to supply B+ to the coil side of cooling fan high speed relay. Simultaneously, the ECM applies ground at the FAN 2 control circuit for the coil side of the cooling fan high speed relay. The energized high speed relay switch closes to supply B+ directly to the engine cooling fan motor, by-passing the fans internal resistors. The result is cooling fan operation at full speed.

COOLING FAN DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (2H0)

System Overview

The engine cooling fan system is composed of one cooling fan, 2 relays, the engine control module (ECM), and the associated wiring. The cooling fan assembly includes 1 resistor mounted in the cooling fan shroud. The cooling fan resistor may be a stand alone component, or a part of the cooling fan motor and harness assembly.

This combination of components enables the ECM to operate the cooling fan at 2 speeds using two fan control circuits. The ECM will operate the cooling fan at either Low or High speed based on the cooling requirements.

Low Speed Operation

The ECM applies ground at the FAN 1 control circuit for the coil side of the low speed cooling fan relay. The energized low speed relay switch closes to supply B+ through the cooling fan resistor, to the engine cooling fan motor. The result is cooling fan operation at a reduced speed.

High Speed Operation

The ECM applies ground at the FAN 2 control circuit for the coil side of the cooling fan high speed relay. The energized high speed relay switch closes to supply B+ directly to the engine cooling fan motor, by-passing the cooling fan resistor. The result is cooling fan operation at full speed.

Cooling system description and operation

Engine Coolant Indicators

  • The instrument panel cluster (IPC) shows the engine temperature on the temperature gauge. The value is sent on the data communication line from engine control module (ECM). When the coolant temperature is more than 128ºC (262ºF) IPC receives a discrete input from ECM requesting illumination.
  • The IPC performs the display test at the start of each ignition cycle. The IPC illuminates the TEMP indicator.

Coolant Level Control

The engine cooling system contains an engine coolant level switch to alert the driver in the event of a low coolant level. When the engine coolant level in the surge tank falls below a certain level, the coolant level switch opens. When the body control module (BCM) detects an open or a high voltage level on the coolant level indicator control circuit, for at least 10 seconds, it will send a GM LAN message to the driver information center (DIC) requesting display of the low coolant level message. There is approximately a 10-second delay before the BCM sends the GM LAN message to prevent the message from being displayed, due to coolant sloshing in the surge tank.

Coolant Heater

The optional engine coolant heater operates using AC external power and is designed to warm the coolant in the engine block area for improved starting in very cold weather. The coolant heater helps reduce fuel consumption when a cold engine is warming up. The unit is equipped with a detachable AC power cord. A weather shield on the cord is provided to protect the plug when not in use.

Cooling System

The cooling system's function is to maintain an efficient engine operating temperature during all engine speeds and operating conditions. The cooling system is designed to remove approximately one-third of the heat produced by the burning of the air-fuel mixture. When the engine is cold, the coolant does not flow to the radiator until the thermostat opens. This allows the engine to warm quickly.

Cooling Cycle

Coolant flows from the radiator outlet and into the water pump inlet. Some coolant flows from the water pump, to the heater core, then back to the water pump. This provides the passenger compartment with heat and defrost capability as the coolant warms up.

Coolant also flows from the water pump outlet and into the engine block. In the engine block, the coolant circulates through the water jackets surrounding the cylinders where the coolant absorbs heat.

The coolant then flows through the cylinder head gasket openings and into the cylinder heads. In the cylinder heads, the coolant flows through the water jackets surrounding the combustion chambers and valve seats, where the coolant absorbs additional heat.

Coolant is also directed to the throttle body. There the coolant circulates through passages in the casting. During initial start up, the coolant assists in warming the throttle body.

From the cylinder heads, the coolant flows to the thermostat. The flow of coolant will either be stopped at the thermostat until the engine reaches normal operating temperature, or the coolant will flow through the thermostat and into the radiator where the coolant is cooled. At this point, the coolant flow cycle is completed.

Efficient operation of the cooling system requires proper functioning of all cooling system components. The cooling system consists of the following components.

Coolant

The engine coolant is a solution made up of a 50/50 mixture of drinking water and anti-freeze. The coolant solution carries excess heat away from the engine to the radiator, where the heat is dissipated to the atmosphere.

Radiator

The radiator is a heat exchanger consisting of a core and 2 tanks. The aluminum core is a tube and fin crossflow design that extends from the inlet tank to the outlet tank. Fins are placed around the outside of the tubes to improve heat transfer to the atmosphere.

The inlet and outlet tanks are a molded, high temperature, nylon reinforced plastic material. A high temperature rubber gasket seals the tank flange edge to the aluminum core. The tanks are clamped to the core with clinch tabs. The tabs are part of the aluminum header at each end of the core.

The radiator also has a drain cock located in the bottom of the left hand tank. The drain cock unit includes the drain cock and drain cock seal.

Heat is removed from the coolant as the coolant passes through the radiator. The fins on the core transfer heat from the coolant passing through the tubes. Air passing between the fins absorbs the heat and cools the coolant

Pressure Cap

The pressure cap seals and pressurizes the cooling system. The cap contains a blow off, or pressure valve and a vacuum, or an atmospheric valve:

  • The pressure valve is held against the seat by a spring that protects the radiator by relieving pressure that exceeds 15 psi.
  • The vacuum valve is held against the seat by a spring that permits opening of the valve to relieve vacuum created when the cooling system cools. The vacuum, if not relieved, might cause the radiator to collapse.

The pressure cap allows the cooling system pressure to build up when the temperature increases. As the pressure builds, the boiling point of the coolant increases. Therefore, the engine coolant can be safely run at a temperature much higher than the boiling point of the coolant at atmospheric pressure. The hotter the coolant becomes, the faster the heat transfers from the radiator into the cooler air.

The pressure in the cooling system can get too high. When the pressure exceeds the strength of the spring, the pressure valve rises, venting the excess pressure.

As the engine cools, the temperature of the coolant drops and a vacuum is created in the cooling system. This vacuum causes the vacuum valve to open. This equalizes the pressure in the cooling system with the atmospheric pressure, preventing the radiator from collapsing.

Coolant Recovery System

The coolant recovery system consists of a plastic coolant recovery reservoir and overflow tube. The recovery reservoir is also called a recovery tank or expansion tank. This tank is partially filled with coolant and is connected to the radiator fill neck with the overflow tube. Coolant can flow back and forth between the radiator and the reservoir.

In effect, a cooling system with a coolant recovery reservoir is a closed system. When the pressure within the cooling system gets too high, the pressure valve in the pressure cap will open. This allows the coolant, which has expanded due to heat, to flow through the overflow tube and into the recovery reservoir. As the engine cools down, the temperature of the coolant drops and a vacuum is created in the cooling system. This vacuum opens the vacuum valve in the pressure cap, allowing some of the coolant in the reservoir to be siphoned back into the radiator. Under normal operating conditions, no coolant is lost. Although the coolant level in the recovery reservoir goes up and down, the radiator and cooling system are kept full. An advantage to using a coolant recovery reservoir is the elimination of almost all air bubbles from the cooling system. Coolant without bubbles absorbs heat much better than coolant with bubbles.

Air Baffles and Seals

The cooling system uses deflectors, air baffles and air seals to increase cooling system capability. Deflectors are installed under the vehicle to redirect airflow beneath the vehicle and through the radiator to increase engine cooling. Air baffles are also used to direct airflow through the radiator and increase cooling capability. Air seals prevent air from bypassing the radiator and A/C condenser, and prevent recirculation of hot air for better hot weather cooling and A/C condenser performance.

Water Pump

The water pump is a centrifugal vane impeller type pump. The pump consists of a housing with coolant inlet and outlet passages and an impeller. The impeller is a flat plate mounted on the pump shaft with a series of flat or curved blades or vanes. When the impeller rotates, the coolant between the vanes is thrown outward by centrifugal force. The impeller shaft is supported by one or more sealed bearings, which never need to be lubricated. With a sealed bearing, grease cannot leak out, and dirt and water cannot get in.

The water pump circulates coolant throughout the cooling system. The pump is driven by the crankshaft from the drive belt.

Thermostat

The thermostat is a coolant flow control component, whose purpose is to regulate the operating temperature of the engine. The thermostat utilizes a temperature sensitive wax-pellet element, which connects to a valve through a piston. Heating is causing the element to expand and exert pressure against a rubber diaphragm. This pressure forces the valve to open. Cooling causes the element to contract. This contraction allows a spring to push the valve closed.

When the coolant temperature is below 91ºC (195ºF), the thermostat valve remains closed. This prevents circulation of the coolant to the radiator and allows the engine to warm up quickly. After the coolant temperature reaches 91ºC (195ºF), the thermostat valve will open. The switch point will differ a little depending on engine. The coolant is then allowed to circulate through the thermostat to the radiator where the engine heat is dissipated to the atmosphere. The thermostat also provides a restriction in the cooling system, even after opening. This restriction creates a pressure difference which prevents cavitations at the water pump and forces coolant to circulate through the engine block.

For some engines a solenoid thermostat controlled by the ECM will open and close the circulation.

Transmission Oil Cooler

The transmission oil cooler is a heat exchanger and is located inside the right side end tank of the radiator. The transmission fluid temperature is regulated by the temperature of the engine coolant that surrounds the oil cooler as the transmission fluid passes through the cooler.

The transmission oil pump circulates the fluid through the feed line to the oil cooler. The fluid then flows through the cooler while the engine coolant absorbs heat from the fluid. The fluid is then pumped through the return line to the transmission.

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

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