Buick Encore Owners & Service Manuals

Buick Encore: Repair instructions

TIRE AND WHEEL ASSEMBLY BALANCING - OFF VEHICLE

WARNING: Failure to adhere to the following precautions before tire balancing can result in personal injury or damage to components:

  • Clean away any dirt or deposits from the inside of the wheels.
  • Remove any stones from the tread.
  • Wear eye protection.
  • Use coated weights on aluminum wheels.

Tire and Wheel Assembly Balancer Calibration

Tire and wheel balancers can drift out of calibration over time, or can become inaccurate as a result of heavy use. There will likely not be any visual evidence that a calibration problem exists. If a balancer is not calibrated within specifications, and a tire and wheel assembly is balanced on that machine, the assembly may actually be imbalanced.

Tire and wheel assembly balancer calibration should be checked approximately every 2 weeks, if the machine is used frequently, and/or whenever the balance readings are questionable.

Tire and Wheel Assembly Balancer Calibration Test

NOTE: If the balancer fails any of the steps in this calibration test, the balancer should be calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. If the balancer cannot be calibrated, contact the manufacturer for assistance.

Inspect the calibration of the tire and wheel assembly balancer according to the manufacturer's recommendations, or perform the following test.

Fig. 17: View Of Tire & Wheel Assembly Balancer
Fig. 17: View Of Tire & Wheel Assembly Balancer

  1. Spin the balancer without a wheel or any of the adapters on the shaft.
  2. Inspect the balancer readings.

Specification

0 within 7 g ( 1/4 oz)

  1. If the balancer is within the specification range, balance a tire and wheel assembly - that is within radial and lateral runout tolerances - to ZERO, using the same balancer.
  2. After the tire and wheel assembly has been balanced, add an 85 g (3 oz) test weight to the wheel at any location.
  3. Spin the tire and wheel assembly again. Note the readings.
  • In the static and dynamic modes, the balancer should call for 85 g (3 oz) of weight, 180 degrees opposite the test weight.
  • In the dynamic mode, the weight should be called for on the flange of the wheel opposite the test weight.
  1. With the assembly imbalanced to 85 g (3 oz), cycle the balancer 5 times.
  2. Inspect the balancer readings:

Specification

Maximum variation-7 g ( 1/4 oz)

  1. Index the tire and wheel assembly on the balancer shaft, 90 degrees from the previous location.
  2. Cycle the balancer with the assembly at the new location.
  3.  Inspect the balancer readings:

Specification

Maximum variation-7 g ( 1/4 oz)

  1. Repeat steps 8-10 until the tire and wheel assembly has been cycled and checked at each of the 4 locations on the balancer shaft.

Tire and Wheel Assembly Balancing Guidelines

NOTE: Tire and wheel assemblies which exhibit excessive runout can produce vibrations even if the assemblies are balanced.

It is strongly recommended that the tire and wheel assembly runout be measured and corrected if necessary BEFORE the assemblies are balanced.

If the runout of the tire and wheel assemblies has not yet been measured, refer to Tire and Wheel Assembly Runout Measurement - Off Vehicle before proceeding.

There are 2 types of tire and wheel balance:

Static Balance

Fig. 18: View Of Static Balance
Fig. 18: View Of Static Balance

Static balance is the equal distribution of weight around the wheel circumference. The wheel balance weights (2) are positioned on the wheel in order to offset the effects of a heavy spot (3). Wheels that have static imbalance can produce a bouncing action called tramp.

Dynamic Balance

Fig. 19: View Of Dynamic Balance
Fig. 19: View Of Dynamic Balance

Dynamic balance is the equal distribution of weight on each side of the tire and wheel assembly centerline. The wheel balance weights (2) are positioned on the wheel in order to offset the effects of a heavy spot (3). Wheels that have dynamic imbalance have a tendency to move from side to side and can cause an action called shimmy.

Most off-vehicle balancers are capable of checking both types of balance simultaneously.

As a general rule, most vehicles are more sensitive to static imbalance than to dynamic imbalance; however, vehicles equipped with low profile, wide tread path, high performance tires and wheels are susceptible to small amounts of dynamic imbalance. As little as 14-21 g ( 1/2 - 3/4 oz) imbalance is capable of inducing a vibration in some vehicle models.

Balancing Procedure

CAUTION: Refer to Vehicle Lifting and Jacking Caution

NOTE: When balancing tire and wheel assemblies, use a known good, recently calibrated, off-vehicle, two-plane dynamic balancer set to the finest balance mode available.

  1. Raise and support the vehicle.
  2. Mark the location of the wheels to the wheel studs and mark the specific vehicle position on each tire and wheel - LF, LR, RF, RR.
  3. Remove the tire and wheel assemblies one at a time and mount on a spin-type wheel balancer. Refer to Tire and Wheel Removal and Installation .
  4. Carefully follow the wheel balancer manufacturer instructions for proper mounting techniques to be used on different types of wheels.

    Regard aftermarket wheels, especially those incorporating universal lug patterns, as potential sources of runout and mounting concerns.

  5. Be sure to use the correct type of wheel balance weights for the type of wheel rim being balanced. Be sure to use the correct type of coated wheel balance weights on aluminum wheels. Refer to Wheel Weight Usage.
  6. Balance all four tire and wheel assemblies as close to zero as possible.
  7. Using the matchmarks made prior to removal, install the tire and wheel assemblies to the vehicle. Refer to Tire and Wheel Removal and Installation .
  8. Lower the vehicle.

Wheel Weight Usage

Tire and wheel assemblies can be balanced using either the static or dynamic method.

Clip-on Weights

Fig. 20: Identifying Clip-On Wheel Weight Types
Fig. 20: Identifying Clip-On Wheel Weight Types

NOTE: When balancing factory aluminum wheels with clip-on wheel balance weights, be sure to use special polyester-coated weights. These coated weights reduce the potential for corrosion and damage to aluminum wheels.

These coated weights reduce the potential for corrosion and damage to aluminum wheels.

  • MC (1) and AW (2) series weights are approved for use on aluminum wheels.
  • P (3) series weights are approved for use on steel wheels only.
  • T (4) series coated weights are approved for use on both steel and aluminum wheels.

Fig. 21: Attaching Clip-On Wheel Weight
Fig. 21: Attaching Clip-On Wheel Weight

NOTE: Use a nylon or plastic-tipped hammer when installing coated clip-on wheel balance weights to minimize the possibility of damage to the polyester coating.

The contour and style of the wheel rim flange will determine which type of clip-on wheel weight (1) should be used. The weight should follow the contour of the rim flange. The weight clip should firmly grip the rim flange.

Wheel Weight Placement - Clip-on Weights

Fig. 22: View Of Wheel Weight Placement - Static Balancing
Fig. 22: View Of Wheel Weight Placement - Static Balancing

When static balancing, locate the wheel balance weights on the inboard flange (2) if only 28 g (1 oz) or less is called for. If more than 28 g (1 oz) is called for, split the weights as equally as possible between the inboard (2) and outboard (1) flanges.

When dynamic balancing, locate the wheel balance weights on the inboard (2) and outboard (1) rim flanges at the positions specified by the wheel balancer.

Adhesive Weights

Fig. 23: Identifying Adhesive Weight Wheel Placement
Fig. 23: Identifying Adhesive Weight Wheel Placement

NOTE: When installing adhesive balance weights on flangeless wheels, do NOT install the weight on the outboard surface of the rim.

Adhesive wheel balance weights may be used on factory aluminum wheels. Perform the following procedure to install adhesive wheel balance weights.

  1. Determine the correct areas for placement of the wheel weights on the wheel.
  • When static balancing, locate the wheel balance weights along the wheel centerline (1) on the inner wheel surface if only 28 g (1 oz) or less is called for. If more than 28 g (1 oz) is called for, split the weights as equally as possible between the wheel centerline and the inboard edge of the inner wheel surface (2).
  • When dynamic balancing, locate the wheel balance weights along the wheel centerline and the inboard edge of the inner wheel surface (2) at the positions specified by the wheel balancer.
  1. Ensure that there is sufficient clearance between the wheel weights and brake system components.

NOTE: Do not use abrasives to clean any surface of the wheel.

  1. Using a clean cloth or paper towel with a general purpose cleaner, thoroughly clean the designated balance weight attachment areas of any corrosion, overspray, dirt or any other foreign material.
  2. To ensure there is no remaining residue, wipe the balance weight attachment areas again, using a clean cloth or paper towel with a mixture of half isopropyl alcohol and half water.
  3. Dry the attachment areas with hot air until the wheel surface is warm to the touch.
  4. Warm the adhesive backing on the wheel balance weights to room temperature.
  5. Remove the protective covering from the adhesive backing on the back of the balance weights. DO NOT touch the adhesive surface.
  6. Apply the wheel balance weights to the wheel, press into place with hand pressure.
  7. Secure the wheel balance weights to the wheel with a 90 N (21 lb) force applied with a roller.

TIRE AND WHEEL ASSEMBLY BALANCING - ON-VEHICLE

Special Tools

EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) 2

If after following the tire and wheel vibration diagnostic process, some amount of tire and wheel vibration is still evident, an on-vehicle high-speed spin balancer may be used to perform an on-vehicle balance in an attempt to finish balance the tire and wheel assemblies, wheel hubs, brake rotors, brake drums, if equipped, and wheel trim, if equipped, simultaneously. On-vehicle balancing can also compensate for minor amounts of residual runout encountered as a result of mounting the tire and wheel assembly on the vehicle, as opposed to the balance which was achieved on the off-vehicle balancer.

In order to perform an on-vehicle balancing procedure, carefully follow the on-vehicle balancer manufacturer's specific operating instructions and carefully consider the following information before proceeding:

  • Vehicles equipped with low profile, wide tread path, high performance tires and wheels are susceptible to small amounts of dynamic imbalance.
  • When performing an on-vehicle balance, great care must be taken when placing the wheel balance weights on the wheels. If the wheel balance weights are not placed accurately, they can actually induce dynamic imbalance and thus increase the severity of the vibration.
  • Inspect the vehicle wheel bearings to ensure that they are in good condition.
  • Thoroughly inspect all on-vehicle balancing equipment and ensure that it is fully within the manufacturer's recommended specifications.
  • Do not remove the off-vehicle balance weights. The purpose of on-vehicle balance is to fine tune the assembly balance already achieved off-vehicle, not to start over.
  • Leave all wheel trim installed whenever possible.
  • If the on-vehicle balancer calls for more than 56 g (2 oz) of additional weight, split the weight between the inboard and outboard flanges of the wheel, so as not to upset the dynamic balance of the assembly achieved in the off-vehicle balance. For wheel balance weight information, refer to Tire and Wheel Assembly Balancing - Off Vehicle.
  • If available, tape-off an area on top of the fenders and the quarter panels, then place the vibration sensor of the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) 2 on the fender or quarter panel above the specific tire and wheel assembly while it is being on-vehicle balanced.

The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) 2 will provide a visual indication of the amplitude of the vibration, and the effect that the on-vehicle balance has on it.

TIRE-TO-WHEEL MATCH-MOUNTING (VECTORING)

Fig. 24: View Of Tire-to-Wheel Match-Mounting
Fig. 24: View Of Tire-to-Wheel Match-Mounting

NOTE: After remounting a tire to a wheel or after replacing a tire and/or a wheel, remeasure the tire and wheel assembly runout in order to verify that the amount of runout has been reduced and brought to within tolerances. Ensure that the tire and wheel assembly is properly balanced before reinstalling to the vehicle.

  1. Mark the location of the high spot (3) on the tire as determined during the off-vehicle tire and wheel assembly runout measurement.
  2. Place a reference mark (2) on the tire sidewall at the location of the valve stem (5).
  • Always refer to the valve stem as the 12 o'clock position.
  • Refer to the location of the high spot (3) by its clock position on the wheel, relative to the valve stem.
  1. Mount the tire and wheel assembly on a tire machine and break down the bead. Do not dismount the tire from the wheel at this time.
  2. Rotate the tire 180 degrees on the rim so that the valve stem reference mark (8) is now at the 6 o'clock position in relation to the valve stem (6). You may need to lubricate the bead in order to easily rotate the tire on the wheel.
  3. Reinflate the tire and seat the bead properly.
  4. Mount the assembly on the tire balancer and remeasure the runout. Mark the new location of the assembly runout high spot on the tire.
  5. If the assembly runout has been reduced and is within tolerance, no further steps are necessary. Balance the tire and wheel assembly, then install the assembly to the vehicle. Refer to the following:
  • Tire and Wheel Assembly Balancing - Off Vehicle
  • Tire and Wheel Removal and Installation
  1. If the clock location of the high spot remained at or near the original clock location of the high spot (7) and the assembly runout has NOT been reduced, the wheel is the major contributor to the assembly runout concern.

Fig. 25: View Of Match-Mounting Tire-To-Wheel
Fig. 25: View Of Match-Mounting Tire-To-Wheel

  1. If the clock location of the high spot has moved, however the assembly runout has NOT been reduced, perform the following steps:
  1. If the clock location of the high spot (7) is now at or near a position 180 degrees from the original clock location of the high spot, the tire is the major contributor to the assembly runout concern.
  2. If the clock location of the high spot is now in-between the 2 extremes, then both the tire and the wheel are both contributing to the assembly runout concern. Rotate the tire an additional 90 degrees in both the clockwise and the counterclockwise directions to obtain the lowest amount of assembly runout.

TIRE AND WHEEL ASSEMBLY-TO-HUB/AXLE FLANGE MATCH-MOUNTING

NOTE: After remounting a tire and wheel assembly to a hub/axle flange, remeasure the tire and wheel assembly on-vehicle runout in order to verify that the amount of runout has been reduced and brought to within tolerances.

  1. Mark the location of the high spot on the tire and wheel assembly as determined during the on-vehicle tire and wheel assembly runout measurement.
  2. Place a reference mark on the wheel stud that is located closest to the wheel valve stem.
  • Always refer to the reference mark on the wheel stud as the 12 o'clock position.
  • Refer to the location of the high spot by its clock position on the tire and wheel assembly, relative to the marked wheel stud.
  1. Remove the tire and wheel assembly from the hub/axle flange. Refer to Tire and Wheel Removal and Installation .
  2. Rotate the tire and wheel assembly as close to 180 degrees as possible on the hub/axle flange, so that the wheel valve stem is now approximately at the 6 o'clock position in relation to the marked wheel stud.
  3. Reinstall the wheel lug nuts to secure the tire and wheel assembly in the new position. Refer to Tire and Wheel Removal and Installation .
  4. Remeasure the tire and wheel assembly on-vehicle runout. Mark the new location of the assembly onvehicle runout high spot on the tire. Refer to Tire and Wheel Assembly Runout Measurement - On- Vehicle.
  5. If the assembly on-vehicle runout has been reduced and is within tolerance, no further steps are necessary.
  6. If the assembly runout has NOT been reduced, perform the following steps:
  1. If the clock location of the high spot remained at or near the original clock location of the high spot, the hub/axle flange and/or the brake rotor/drum mounting flange is the major contributor to the assembly on-vehicle runout concern.
  2. If the clock location of the high spot is now at or near a position 180 degrees from the original clock location of the high spot, the tire and wheel assembly is the major contributor to the assembly on-vehicle runout concern.
  3. If the clock location of the high spot is now in-between the 2 extremes, then both the tire and wheel assembly and the hub/axle flange are contributing to the assembly on-vehicle runout concern.

    Rotate the tire and wheel assembly as close to an additional 90 degrees as possible in both the clockwise and the counterclockwise directions to obtain the lowest amount of assembly on-vehicle runout.

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