Buick Encore Owners & Service Manuals

Buick Encore: Description and operation

Vibration theory and terminology

Vibration Theory

The designs and engineering requirements of vehicles have undergone drastic changes over the last several years.

Vehicles are stiffer and provide more isolation from road input than they did previously. The structures of today's stiffer vehicles are less susceptible to many of the vibrations which could be present in vehicles of earlier designs, however, vibrations can still be detected in a more modern vehicle if a transfer path is created between a rotating component and the body of the vehicle.

There are not as many points of isolation from the road in many vehicles today. If a component produces a strong enough vibration, it may overcome the existing isolation and the component needs to be repaired or replaced.

The presence/absence of unwanted noise and vibration is linked to the customer's perception of the overall quality of the vehicle.

Vibration is the repetitive motion of an object, back and forth, or up and down. The following components cause most vehicle vibrations:

  • A rotating component
  • The engine combustion process firing impulses

Rotating components will cause vibrations when excessive imbalance or runout is present. During vibration diagnosis, the amount of allowable imbalance or runout should be considered a TOLERANCE and not a SPECIFICATION. In other words, the less imbalance or runout the better.

Rotating components will cause a vibration concern when they not properly isolated from the passenger compartment: Engine firing pulses can be detected as a vibration if a motor mount is collapsed.

A vibrating component operates at a consistent rate (km/h, mph, or RPM). Measure the rate of vibration in question. When the rate/speed is determined, relate the vibration to a component that operates at an equal rate/speed in order to pinpoint the source. Vibrations also tend to transmit through the body structure to other components. Therefore, just because the seat vibrates does not mean the source of vibration is in the seat.

Vibrations consist of the following three elements:

  • The source - the cause of the vibration
  • The transfer path - the path the vibration travels through the vehicle
  • The responder - the component where the vibration is felt

Fig. 26: Identifying Unbalanced Tire Vibration
Fig. 26: Identifying Unbalanced Tire Vibration

In the preceding picture, the source is the unbalanced tire. The transfer path is the route the vibrations travels through the vehicle's suspension system into the steering column. The responder is the steering wheel, which the customer reports as vibrating. Eliminating any one of these three elements will usually correct the condition.

Decide, from the gathered information, which element makes the most sense to repair. Adding a brace to the steering column may keep the steering wheel from vibrating, but adding a brace is not a practical solution. The most direct and effective repair would be to properly balance the tire.

Fig. 27: Identifying Exhaust Pipe Noise
Fig. 27: Identifying Exhaust Pipe Noise

Vibration can also produce noise. As an example, consider a vehicle that has an exhaust pipe grounded to the frame. The source of the vibration is the engine firing impulses traveling through the exhaust. The transfer path is a grounded or bound-up exhaust hanger. The responder is the frame. The floor panel vibrates, acting as a large speaker, which produces noise. The best repair would be to eliminate the transfer path. Aligning the exhaust system and correcting the grounded condition at the frame would eliminate the transfer path.

Basic Vibration Terminology

The following are the 2 primary components of vibration diagnosis:

  • The physical properties of objects
  • The object's properties of conducting mechanical energy

The repetitive up and down or back and forth movement of a component cause most customer vibration complaints. The following are the common components that vibrate:

  • The steering wheel
  • The seat cushion
  • The frame
  • The IP

Vibration diagnosis involves the following simple outline:

  1. Measure the repetitive motion and assign a value to the measurement in cycles per second or cycles per minute.
  2. Relate the frequency back on terms of the rotational speed of a component that is operating at the same rate or speed.
  3. Inspect and test the components for conditions that cause vibration.

For example, performing the following steps will help demonstrate the vibration theory:

Fig. 28: Demonstrating Vibration Theory
Fig. 28: Demonstrating Vibration Theory

  1. Clamp a yardstick to the edge of a table, leaving about 50 cm (20 in) hanging over the edge of the table.
  2. Pull down on the edge of the stick and release while observing the movement of the stick.

The motion of the stick occurs in repetitive cycles. The cycle begins at midpoint, continues through the lowest extreme of travel, then back past the midpoint, through the upper extreme of travel, and back to the midpoint where the cycle begins again.

The cycle occurs over and over again at the same rate, or frequency. In this case, about 10 cycles in one second.

If we measure the frequency to reflect the number of complete cycles that the yardstick made in one minute, the measure would be 10 cycles x 60 seconds = 600 cycles per minute (cpm).

We have also found a specific amount of motion, or amplitude, in the total travel of the yardstick from the very top to the very bottom. Redo the experiment as follows:

  1. Reclamp the yardstick to the edge of a table, leaving about 25 cm (10 in) hanging over the edge of the table.
  2. Pull down on the edge of the stick and release while observing the movement of the stick.

The stick vibrates at a much faster frequency: 30 cycles per second (1,800 cycles per minute).

Cycle

NO TITLE

Fig. 29: Identifying Powertrain Vibration Cycles
Fig. 29: Identifying Powertrain Vibration Cycles

Courtesy of GENERAL MOTORS COMPANY

Courtesy of GENERAL MOTORS COMPANY

Vibration Cycles in Powertrain Components

Fig. 30: Identifying Vibration Cycles In Powertrain Components
Fig. 30: Identifying Vibration Cycles In Powertrain Components

Vibration Cycles in Powertrain Components

The word cycle comes from the same root as the word circle. A circle begins and ends at the same point, as thus, so does a cycle. All vibrations consist of repetitive cycles.

Frequency

Fig. 31: Identifying Vibration Frequency
Fig. 31: Identifying Vibration Frequency

Frequency

Frequency is defined as the rate at which an event occurs during a given period of time. With a vibration, the event is a cycle, and the period of time is 1 second. Thus, frequency is expressed in cycles per second.

The proper term for cycles per seconds is Hertz (Hz). This is the most common way to measure frequency.

Multiply the Hertz by 60 to get the cycles or revolutions per minute (RPM).

Amplitude

Fig. 32: Identifying Vibration Amplitude
Fig. 32: Identifying Vibration Amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude is the maximum value of a periodically varying quantity. Used in vibration diagnostics, we are referring it to the magnitude of the disturbance. A severe disturbance would have a high amplitude; a minor disturbance would have a low amplitude.

Amplitude is measured by the amount of actual movement, or the displacement. For example, consider the vibration caused by an out-of-balance wheel at 80 km/h (50 mph) as opposed to 40 km/h (25 mph). As the speed increases, the amplitude increases.

Free Vibration

Free vibration is the continued vibration in the absence of any outside force. In the yardstick example, the yardstick continued to vibrate even after the end was released.

Forced Vibration

Forced vibration is when an object is vibrating continuously as a result of an outside force.

Centrifugal Force Due to an Imbalance

Fig. 33: Identifying Centrifugal Force Components
Fig. 33: Identifying Centrifugal Force Components

Centrifugal Force Due to an Imbalance

A spinning object with an imbalance generates a centrifugal force. Performing the following steps will help to demonstrate centrifugal force:

  1. Tie a nut to a string.
  2. Hold the string. The nut hangs vertically due to gravity.
  3. Spin the string. The nut will spin in a circle.

Centrifugal force is trying to make the nut fly outward, causing the pull you feel on your hand. An unbalanced tire follows the same example. The nut is the imbalance in the tire. The string is the tire, wheel, and suspension assembly. As the vehicle speed increases, the disturbing force of the unbalanced tire can be felt in the steering wheel, the seat, and the floor. This disturbance will be repetitive (Hz) and the amplitude will increase. At higher speeds, both the frequency and the amplitude will increase. As the tire revolves, the imbalance, or the centrifugal force, will alternately lift the tire up and force the tire downward, along with the spindle, once for each revolution of the tire.

Natural or Resonant Frequency

Fig. 34: View Of Natural Frequency
Fig. 34: View Of Natural Frequency

The natural frequency is the frequency at which an object tends to vibrate. Bells, guitar strings, and tuning forks are all examples of objects that tend to vibrate at specific frequencies when excited by an external force.

Suspension systems, and even engines within the mounts, have a tendency to vibrate at certain frequencies. This is why some vibration complaints occur only at specific vehicle speeds or engine RPM.

The stiffness and the natural frequency of a material have a relationship. Generally, the stiffer the material, the higher the natural frequency. The opposite is also true. The softer a material, the lower the natural frequency.

Conversely, the greater the mass, the lower the natural frequency.

Resonance

Fig. 35: Natural Frequency Of A Typical Automotive Front Suspension
Fig. 35: Natural Frequency Of A Typical Automotive Front Suspension

 

Resonance

Resonance

All objects have natural frequencies. The natural frequency of a typical automotive front suspension is in the 10-15 Hz range. This natural frequency is the result of the suspension design. The suspension's natural frequency is the same at all vehicle speeds. As the tire speed increases along with the vehicle speed, the disturbance created by the tire increases in frequency. Eventually, the frequency of the unbalanced tire will intersect with the natural frequency of the suspension. This causes the suspension to vibrate. The intersecting point is called the resonance.

The amplitude of a vibration will be greatest at the point of resonance. While the vibration may be felt above and below the problem speed, the vibration may be felt the most at the point of resonance.

Damping

Fig. 36: Identifying Low & High Damping
Fig. 36: Identifying Low & High Damping

Damping

Damping is the ability of an object or material to dissipate or absorb vibration. The automotive shock absorber is a good example. The function of the shock absorber is to absorb or dampen the oscillations of the suspension system.

Beating (Phasing)

Fig. 37: Identifying Beating Or Phasing
Fig. 37: Identifying Beating Or Phasing

Two separate disturbances that are relatively close together in frequency will lead to a condition called beating, or phasing. A beating vibration condition will increase in intensity or amplitude in a repetitive fashion as the vehicle travels at a steady speed. This beating vibration can produce the familiar droning noise heard in some vehicles.

Beating occurs when 2 vibrating forces are adding to each other's amplitude. However, 2 vibrating forces can also subtract from each other's amplitude. The adding and subtracting of amplitudes in similar frequencies is called beating. In many cases, eliminating either one of the disturbances can correct the condition.

Order

Order refers to how many times an event occurs during 1 revolution of a rotating component.

Fig. 38: Identifying First-Order Vibration
Fig. 38: Identifying First-Order Vibration

For example, a tire with 1 high spot would create a disturbance once for every revolution of the tire. This is called first-order vibration.

Fig. 39: Identifying Second-Order Vibration
Fig. 39: Identifying Second-Order Vibration

An oval-shaped tire with 2 high spots would create a disturbance twice for every revolution. This is called second-order vibration. Three high spots would be third-order, and so forth. Two first-order vibrations may add or subtract from the overall amplitude of the disturbance, but that is all. Two first-order vibrations do not equal a second-order. Due to centrifugal force, an unbalanced component will always create at least a first-order vibration.

Electronic vibration analyzer (EVA) description and operation

Special Tools

  • EL-38792-25 Inductive Pickup Timing Light
  • EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2)

For equivalent regional tools, refer to Special Tools and Equipment.

The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) , is a 12-volt powered hand-held device, similar to a scan tool, which receives input from an attached vibration sensor or accelerometer and displays the most dominate input frequency(ies) (up to three) on its liquid crystal display. The vibration concern frequency(ies) are obtained through the use of the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) while following the Vibration Analysis Diagnostic Tables. The frequency(ies) obtained, when applied to the Vibration Analysis Diagnostic Tables, are used as a primary input to help determine the source of the vibration concern.

EVA Vibration Sensor

The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) vibration sensor incorporates a 6.1 m (20 ft) cord, that allows the sensor to be placed on virtually any component of the vehicle where a vibration concern is felt.

The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) contains 2 sensor input ports which can be activated individually to allow for 2 individual vibration sensor inputs. The vibration sensors can then be placed in 2 different locations in the vehicle and their individual inputs can be read without having to stop a test, move the sensor and resume the test. The use of 2 vibration sensors can help in more quickly finding and recording an accurate frequency of the vibration concern, and in more quickly making comparisons between 2 different areas of a single component, or a vehicle system, during the diagnostic process.

EVA Vibration Sensor Placement

Proper placement of the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) vibration sensor (accelerometer) is critical to ensure that proper vibration readings are obtained by the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2). The vibration sensor should be placed on the specific vehicle component identified as being the most respondent to the vibration. If no component has been identified, install the sensor to the steering column as a starting point.

EVA Vibration Sensor-to-Component Attachment

NOTE: The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) vibration sensor must be attached to vehicle components in the manner indicated in order to achieve accurate frequency readings of the vibration disturbance.

The vibration sensor of the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) is designed to pickup disturbances which primarily occur in the vertical plane, since most vibrations are felt in that same up-anddown direction. The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) vibration sensor is therefore directional sensitive and must be attached to vehicle components such that the side of the sensor marked UP is always facing upright and the sensor body is as close to horizontal as possible. The sensor must be installed in the exact same position each time tests are repeated or comparisons are made to other vehicles.

The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) vibration sensor can be attached to vehicle components in various ways. For non-ferrous surfaces, such as the shroud of a steering column, the sensor can be attached using putty, or hook and loop fasteners. For ferrous surfaces, the sensor can be attached using a magnet supplied with the sensor.

EVA Software Cartridge

The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) uses a software cartridge, the GE-38792-60, which provides various information to the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2). The GE-38792-60 provides the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) with an additional feature which can be selected and utilized to assist in diagnosing vibration concerns.

NOTE: The Auto-Mode function of the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) cartridge, GE-38792-60, is designed to be used in SUPPORT of the Vibration Analysis Diagnostic Tables ONLY.

This support-feature is available through the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) Auto-Mode function. When selected, the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) will prompt the user to select which one of 2 vehicle systems (vehicle speed or engine speed), is the SUSPECTED source of the vibration concern. Using the inputted vehicle data parameters along with the most dominate vibration frequency obtained, it will identify a SUSPECTED source of the vibration concern, such as first-order tire and wheel. This can be a useful feature when used in conjunction with the Vibration Analysis Diagnostic Tables, to confirm results obtained through the diagnostic process.

EVA Smart Strobe Function

The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) can be used to identify some rotating components/systems which exhibit imbalance IF the component rotational speed is the dominant frequency of the vibration concern. The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) is equipped with a strobe light trigger wire which can be used with an inductive pickup timing light, EL-38792-25 Inductive Pickup Timing Light , or equivalent included with the GE-38792-25-KIT, or available separately. Using the Smart Strobe function enables the user to input the vibration frequency to which the strobe will flash. By marking the suspected rotating component, such as a pulley, adjusting the strobe frequency to match the dominant vibration frequency at the engine RPM noted during diagnosis, and then operating the engine at that specific RPM, the mark on the object will appear to be stationary if that object is imbalanced.

EVA Strobe Balancing Function

The EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) can be used to identify the light spot on a propeller shaft IF the propeller shaft rotational speed is the dominant frequency of the vibration concern. The EL-38792- A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) is equipped with a strobe light trigger wire which can be used with an inductive pickup timing light, GE-38792-25 Inductive Pickup Timing Light , or equivalent included with the J-38792-25-KIT, or available separately, and in conjunction with the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) vibration sensor to identify the light spot on a propeller shaft and to help in making a determination as to when propeller shaft balance is obtained.

Averaging/Non-Averaging Modes

The EVA provides 2 modes of displaying the most dominate frequencies which the EVA vibration sensor (accelerometer) detects; averaging and non-averaging (instantaneous).

The averaging mode uses multiple vibration samples taken over a period of time and then displays the most dominant frequencies which have been averaged-out. Using the averaging mode minimizes the distractions caused by a sudden vibration frequency being displayed that is not related to the concern vibration, such as from pot holes or from uneven road surfaces.

The non-averaging (instantaneous) mode is more sensitive to vibration disturbances than the averaging mode.

Using the non-averaging mode will generate instantaneous frequency displays which are not averaged across multiple samples over a period of time; the specific vibration frequencies that occur at a specific moment during diagnostic testing will be displayed at that moment. The non-averaging (instantaneous) mode is useful when measuring a vibration disturbance that exists for only a short period of time or during acceleration/deceleration testing.

When operating the EVA in the averaging mode along with the Auto Mode, "A" will be displayed along the top of the screen to the left of the vibration sensor input port being used. When operating the EVA in the averaging mode and the Manual Mode, "AVG" will be displayed along the top center of the screen.

When operating the EVA in the non-averaging (instantaneous) mode along with the Auto Mode, "I" will be displayed along the top of the screen to the left of the vibration sensor input port being used. When operating the EVA in the non-averaging (instantaneous) mode and the Manual Mode, the top center of the screen will be blank.

EVA Display

Fig. 40: View Of EVA Display
Fig. 40: View Of EVA Display

The most dominant input frequencies, up to three, received from the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer 2 (EVA 2) vibration sensor, are displayed in descending order of amplitude strength.

The frequency readings are displayed along the left side of the screen, followed to the right by either a bar graph or the suspected source of the vibration - depending upon the mode selected, then the amplitude reading for each frequency along the right side of the screen. The top row of the screen indicates the units of measure being displayed for the frequencies along the left side and for the amplitudes along the right side. The top row also indicates the vibration sensor input port which was selected on the keypad (A or B) and which mode was selected: averaging or non-averaging (instantaneous).

The frequency(ies) can be displayed in either revolutions per minute (RPM) or revolutions per second; Hertz (Hz). The selected display type (RPM or Hz) will be indicated at the left side of the screen, above the frequency readings.

When the AUTO MODE function is not in use, a bar graph is displayed next to each frequency to provide a quick visual indication of the relative amplitude strength.

When the AUTO MODE function is being used, the suspected source of the vibration is displayed next to each frequency to provide support to the diagnostic process.

The actual amplitude strength of each frequency is displayed at the right side of the screen and shown in G's-ofacceleration force.

Oscilloscope diagnostic kit description and operation

Special Tools

  • CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope Diagnostic Kit (w/NVH)
  • EL-47966 Multi Diagnostic Interface MDI

For equivalent regional tools, refer to Special Tools and Equipment.

The CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope Diagnostic Kit (w/NVH) is an automotive oscilloscope which receives input from an attached accelerometer and displays all input frequencies on a laptop or tablet computer. The vibration concern frequency(ies) are obtained through the use of the CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope Diagnostic Kit (w/NVH) hardware, while vehicle component speed data is gathered through the EL-47966 Multi Diagnostic Interface MDI. The MDI data is integrated into the Oscilloscope software so that vibration(s) can be tied to specific vehicle components based on their speed to determine the source of the vibration concern.

Oscilloscope Inputs

The CH-51450-TA183 accelerometer incorporates a 3 m (9.8 ft) cord that allows the sensor to be placed on virtually any component of the vehicle where a vibration concern is felt. The accelerometer uses a self-powered NVH interface module. The NVH interface module uses a replaceable battery. Input B is the default port for a single accelerometer. The cord used to connect the NVH interface module to the CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope is 5 m (16.4 ft) long.

Input D is used for the CH-51450-TA186 optical tachometer sensor which is used during driveline balancing. It incorporates a 2.5 m (8.2 ft) cord and a 5 m (16.4 ft) cord.

There is also an optional microphone that can be used with the CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope.

Oscilloscope Accelerometer Placement

Proper placement of the CH-51450-TA183 accelerometer is critical to ensure that proper vibration readings are obtained by the CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope. The accelerometer should be placed on the drivers side inboard seat track. Once a baseline reading has been taken, the accelerometer can be placed on the point of the customer concern to verify what the customer is hearing or feeling.

Oscilloscope Accelerometer-to-Component Attachment

NOTE: The CH-51450-TA183 accelerometer must be attached to vehicle components in the manner indicated in order to achieve accurate frequency readings of the vibration disturbance.

The accelerometer of the CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope is designed to pick up disturbances which primarily occur in the vertical plane, since most vibrations are felt in that same up-and-down direction. The CH-51450- TA183 accelerometer is therefore directionally sensitive, and must be attached to vehicle components such that the cord end is always facing upright, and the sensor body is as close to horizontal as possible. The sensor must be installed in the exact same position each time tests are repeated, or comparisons are made to other vehicles.

The CH-51450-TA183 accelerometer can be attached to vehicle components in various ways. For non-ferrous surfaces, such as the shroud of a steering column, the sensor can be attached using putty, or hook and loop fasteners. For ferrous surfaces, the sensor can be attached using the CH-51450-TA096 magnet supplied with the sensor. For hard aluminum surfaces, a ferrous washer can be glued on using a cyanoacrylate (super glue) and then the magnet can be used.

NVH Software Set-up

Fig. 41: Identifying NVH Software Set-Up Display Screen
Fig. 41: Identifying NVH Software Set-Up Display Screen

When the NVH software is first opened and the NVH tab is selected, there is a set-up wizard within the CH- 51450-NVH NVH software which has a step-by-step guide to ensure the CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope and MDI are connected correctly, and to input the vehicle information.

Oscilloscope NVH Display

The CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope display consists of three tabs:

Fig. 42: Identifying Oscilloscope NVH Set-Up Display Screen
Fig. 42: Identifying Oscilloscope NVH Set-Up Display Screen

The first tab is set-up. The set-up information can be entered here if not already done through the set-up wizard.

It can also be updated here, if necessary. A laptop or desktop computer, EL-47966 Multi Diagnostic Interface MDI , CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope , CH-51450-TA148 NVH interface, and CH-51450-TA183 accelerometer are needed to do a vibration analysis.

Fig. 43: Identifying Oscilloscope NVH Vehicle Information Display Screen
Fig. 43: Identifying Oscilloscope NVH Vehicle Information Display Screen

The second tab is vehicle information. The vehicle information can be entered here if not already done through the set-up wizard. It can also be updated here, if necessary.

Fig. 44: Identifying Oscilloscope NVH Record And Analyze Display Screen
Fig. 44: Identifying Oscilloscope NVH Record And Analyze Display Screen

The third tab is the record and analyze tab. The standard display will show the known input frequencies received from the CH-51450-TA183 accelerometer as a bar graph at the top of the screen. At the middle of the screen, the input frequencies are listed as text. The frequency(ies) are displayed in Hertz (Hz). If desired, the frequency(ies) can be displayed in RPM by clicking Options, then Advanced Options. The actual amplitude strength of each frequency is displayed and shown in g's of acceleration (expressed to the thousandth of a force of gravity, or "milli-g"). At the bottom of the screen, it also shows a plot of all frequency inputs along with engine speed in blue, and vehicle speed in red. The data can be saved in 50 second increments. The data can then be saved by clicking File, then Save. Files that are saved can then be loaded into the software by clicking File, then Load.

Oscilloscope Balancing

The CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope with balancing software can be used to identify some rotating component/systems which exhibit imbalance IF the component rotational speed is the dominant frequency of the vibration concern. The CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope is used with the CH-51450-TA186 optical tachometer sensor. The optical tachometer sensor directly measures component rotational speed so a known weight can be added for a baseline reading. Then the oscilloscope will determine where to add a specific amount of weight to the component.

For example, the CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope can be used to balance the driveline on rear wheel drive and all wheel drive vehicles. The methods that can be employed are a tuned weight approach for drivelines that use couplers and a dual hose clamp approach for drivelines that use CV or two-axis universal joints. The balancing process consists of the CH-51450-TA186 optical tachometer sensor to directly read the driveline speed and software that directs where the weights should be placed depending on the type of driveline/propeller shaft being balanced.

Oscilloscope Balancing Software Set-up

Fig. 45: Identifying Oscilloscope Balancing Software Set-Up Display Screen
Fig. 45: Identifying Oscilloscope Balancing Software Set-Up Display Screen

When the NVH software is first opened and the Balancing tab is selected, a pop-up box within the CH-51450- NVH balancing software will ask which type of balancing method is to be used. The two methods are pinion flange or hose clamp. Then either the wizard (which will walk through the connections and input data) or advanced configuration can be chosen to input the initial information and start the balancing procedure.

Oscilloscope Balancing Display

The propeller shaft balancing will consist of an initial run, three calibration runs, and a verification run. The software will walk through what is required for each run.

Fig. 46: Identifying Pinion Flange Balancing Screen
Fig. 46: Identifying Pinion Flange Balancing Screen

An example of the pinion flange balancing screen is shown above.

Fig. 47: Identifying Hose Clamp Balancing Screen
Fig. 47: Identifying Hose Clamp Balancing Screen

An example of the hose clamp balancing screen is shown above.

Vibrate software description and operation

The EL-38792-VS Vibrate Software , is a computer software program which is designed to be used in support of the Vibration Analysis diagnostic tables, along with the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) 2 , and a scan tool, to help in determining the source of a vibration concern. The EL-38792-VS Vibrate Software is designed to provide quick calculations and produce a chart of the rotational speeds and frequency ranges for specific vehicle systems and components, based upon vehicle data parameters inputted by the user.

The EL-38792-VS Vibrate Software uses the vehicle data parameters, such as axle ratio, number of engine cylinders, etc. to create the base chart, depicting the relationships of the various vehicle systems and/or components. The chart view can be modified to show data related to vehicle speed only, engine speed only, or both vehicle speed and engine speed. The user can then plot the dominant frequency reading obtained on the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) 2 which correlates with the vibration concern, and the engine RPM obtained on a scan tool which correlates with the concern. Once these pieces of data are correctly plotted, the chart will point to the source of the vibration concern, which should confirm the results obtained through the Vibration Analysis diagnostic tables.

The CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope Diagnostic Kit (w/NVH) includes a version of the vibrate software within its help file.

REED TACHOMETER DESCRIPTION

Fig. 48: Identifying Reed Tachometer
Fig. 48: Identifying Reed Tachometer

The reed tachometer consists of 2 rows of reeds arranged side-by-side. Each reed is tuned to vibrate or resonate when it is excited by a specific frequency. The reeds are arranged by their specific resonant frequency, increasing from left to right, ranging from 10-80 Hz. This arrangement allows for a visual display of the most dominate frequencies which fall within this range.

The reed tachometer can be a helpful diagnostic tool, however it is extremely sensitive to external inputs that are not related to the vibration concern, such as rough road surfaces, etc., and it is difficult to master its use. Due to these conditions, the reed tachometer has limited diagnostic capability.

Due to the limited diagnostic capability, limited availability and increasing costs of the reed tachometer, it is NOT recommended as the primary tool to use in diagnosing a vibration concern.

When diagnosing a vibration concern, use the CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope Diagnostic Kit (w/NVH) or the EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) 2. The CH-51450-NVH Oscilloscope Diagnostic Kit (w/NVH) or thd EL-38792-A Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) 2 have been designed to overcome the shortcomings to the reed tachometer. Refer to Oscilloscope Diagnostic Kit Description and Operation, or Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) Description and Operation.

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

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