Buick Encore Owners & Service Manuals

Buick Encore: Steering & suspension checksheet

Fig. 7: Steering & Suspension Checksheet (1 Of 2)
Fig. 7: Steering & Suspension Checksheet (1 Of 2)

Fig. 8: Steering & Suspension Checksheet (2 Of 2)
Fig. 8: Steering & Suspension Checksheet (2 Of 2)

WHEELS & TIRES CHECKSHEET

Fig. 9: Wheels & Tires Checksheet (1 Of 2)
Fig. 9: Wheels & Tires Checksheet (1 Of 2)

Fig. 10: Wheels & Tires Checksheet (2 Of 2)
Fig. 10: Wheels & Tires Checksheet (2 Of 2)

STEERING AND SUSPENSION, WHEEL ALIGNMENT, WHEELS AND TIRES

NOTE: Steering and Suspension are complex systems made up of a variety of interdependent components and controls. For proper vehicle handling, ride, and tire wear, a thorough inspection is required whenever suspension work is being performed.

NOTE: Listed repair conditions assume that the problem has been isolated to the specific component by proper testing procedures. When replacing steering and/or suspension components which may affect an alignment angle, you are required to check and adjust alignment as needed. Refer to the OEM specifications for both ride height and alignment angle tolerances.

NOTE: Improper alignment geometry, and/or improper tire/wheel fitment may affect other systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control, Electronic Stability Control, Electronic Traction Control and Variable Ratio Steering. These systems may require attention after an alignment or suspension service is performed. Care must be taken to identify these vehicles/systems before any repair procedures are performed. Failure to follow OEM guidelines when servicing interrelated systems could result in an unsafe condition.

CAUTION: Do not use ride height altering or load compensating components, such as variable rate springs or coil over shocks on vehicles with height sensing or load sensing proportioning- valve equipped braking systems, unless these components are supplied as original equipment.

ACTIVE HANDLING

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

ACTIVE SUSPENSION CONTROL MODULES

ACTIVE SUSPENSION CONTROL MODULES

ACTIVE SUSPENSION CONTROL MODULES

ACTIVE SUSPENSION CONTROL MODULES

ACTIVE VARIABLE RATIO STEERING

NOTE: Besides electronically providing variable steering ratios, the computer is linked with the Vehicle Stability Control system to aid in directional stability. As the vehicle travels down the highway, road surfaces and wind gusts can affect the vehicle's directional stability. The vehicle may wander or dart to one side, (as many who have met a tractor-trailer unit on a windy day have experienced).

Sensors on the vehicle detect this sudden, unintentional movement and the computer will stabilize the vehicle by moving the Active Steering electric motor and steering gear, all without the driver turning the steering wheel.

NOTE: Additionally, if the driver experiences a skid or slide because of poor road conditions, the Active Steering will react to information from the yaw rate and steering angle sensors to modify the steering angle of the front wheels and stabilize the vehicle. This occurs much faster than the driver can react. If the Active Steering correction is not adequate to control the skid or slide, then the Stability Control system is also activated.

ACTIVE VARIABLE RATIO STEERING

ACTIVE YAW CONTROL

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL

NOTE: Similar to conventional cruise control. It maintains the vehicle's pre-set speed.

However, beyond conventional cruise control, this system automatically adjusts speed to maintain proper distance between vehicles in the same lane. This is achieved through use of a radar or laser headway sensor, a digital signal processor and a longitudinal controller. If the lead vehicle slows down, or another object is detected, the system sends a signal to the engine and/or braking system to decelerate. Then, when the lane is clear, the system will reaccelerate the vehicle back to the set speed. Some OEM's require that the radar or laser headway sensor be calibrated to the thrustline of the vehicle.

ADVANCE TRAC

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

AIR BAGS

AIR BAGS

AIR RIDE CONTROL MODULES

AIR RIDE CONTROL MODULES

AIR RIDE CONTROL MODULES

AIR RIDE SUSPENSION TORSION SPRINGS (COUNTER BALANCING)

AIR RIDE SUSPENSION TORSION SPRINGS (COUNTER BALANCING)

AIR RIDE SUSPENSION

NOTE: Depending on the air suspension design, there are some aftermarket products available to eliminate the air ride suspension on certain vehicles. If the system has been eliminated with one of these products, then no service is suggested or required.

AIR RIDE TUBES

AIR RIDE TUBES

AIR RIDE TUBES

AIR SHOCKS AND AIR STRUTS

NOTE: This section covers the air spring portion of the air shock or strut. For damping portion of shock or strut conditions and procedures, refer to the Shock Absorbers, Strut Cartridges, and Strut Assemblies section.

AIR SHOCKS AND AIR STRUTS

AIR SPRING VALVES

AIR SPRING VALVES

AIR SPRINGS

AIR SPRINGS

AIR SUSPENSION CONTROL VALVES

AIR SUSPENSION CONTROL VALVES

AIR SUSPENSION CONTROL VALVES

AIR SUSPENSION DRIERS

AIR SUSPENSION DRIERS

AXLE ACCELERATION SENSOR

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

AXLE ACCELERATION SENSOR

AXLE ACCELERATION SENSOR

AXLE ACCELERATION SENSOR

BALL JOINTS

NOTE: Before requiring or suggesting ball joint replacement, the approved OEM procedure must be used to measure ball joint wear. The measurement(s) obtained, along with the vehicle manufacturer's specifications, must be noted on the inspection report. Some states require that these measurements also appear on the invoice. The term ""perceptible movement,"" defined as any visible movement in any direction, has been the industry standard for determining the need for replacement of follower (non-load carrying) ball joints.

Some vehicle manufacturers are now publishing specifications for follower ball joints that were previously diagnosed by the ""perceptible movement"" standard. Before requiring or suggesting any parts be replaced based on ""perceptible movement,"" consult your repair manual to determine if OEM specifications exist. You are not required to replace ball joints in axle sets.

However, when replacing a ball joint due to wear exceeding manufacturer's specification, you may suggest replacement of the other ball joint if its measurement shows it is close to the end of its useful life, for preventive maintenance.

BALL JOINTS

BALL JOINTS

BODY ACCELERATION SENSOR

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

BODY ACCELERATION SENSOR

BODY ACCELERATION SENSOR

BUSHINGS

BUSHINGS

CENTER LINKS

CENTER LINKS

CENTER LINKS

CENTER LINKS

COMPRESSORS

COMPRESSORS

COMPRESSORS

CONTINUOUS DAMPING CONTROL

NOTE: A semi-active suspension system which continuously adjusts damping levels according to road conditions and vehicle dynamics, (such as speed, turning and cornering, as well as driver inputs). An ECU processes driver inputs and data from sensors. The sensors include accelerometers mounted on the vehicle body and suspension position sensors, which feed steering wheel angle, vehicle speed, brake pressure and other chassis control data to the ECU. The ECU processes sensor data and sends signals which adjust the damping level of each shock.

CONTROL ARM SHAFTS

CONTROL ARM SHAFTS

CONTROL ARMS

CONTROL ARMS

CONTROL MODULES

CONTROL MODULES

CONTROL MODULES

DISTANCE REGULATION CONTROL MODULE

DISTANCE REGULATION CONTROL MODULE

DISTANCE REGULATION CONTROL MODULE

DISTANCE REGULATION CONTROL MODULE

DISTANCE REGULATION SENSOR

NOTE: OEM may require this sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

DISTANCE REGULATION SENSOR

DISTANCE REGULATION SENSOR

DRAG LINKS

DRAG LINKS

DRAG LINKS

DRAG LINKS

DYNAMIC STABILITY CONTROL

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

DYNAMIC STABILITY CONTROL

DYNAMIC STABILITY TRACTION CONTROL

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

ELECTRONIC RIDE CONTROL SHOCKS AND STRUTS

NOTE: This section covers the electronic damping control portion of the electronic shock or strut. For damping portion of shock or strut conditions and procedures, refer to the Shock Absorbers, Strut Cartridges, and Strut Assemblies section.

ELECTRONIC RIDE CONTROL SHOCKS AND STRUTS

ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

ELECTRONIC SUSPENSION SYSTEM

NOTE: (Typical) A semi-active suspension system which continuously adjusts damping levels according to road conditions and vehicle dynamics, (such as speed, turning and cornering, as well as driver inputs). An ECU processes driver inputs and data from sensors. The sensors include accelerometers mounted on the vehicle body and suspension position sensors, which feed steering wheel angle, vehicle speed, brake pressure and other chassis control data to the ECU. The ECU processes sensor data and sends signals which adjust the damping level of each shock.

FLEX COUPLERS

FLEX COUPLERS

GASKETS

GASKETS

HEIGHT SENSORS

HEIGHT SENSORS

HEIGHT SENSORS

HYDRAULIC HOSES

HYDRAULIC HOSES

HYDRAULIC POWER STEERING PUMPS

HYDRAULIC POWER STEERING PUMPS

HYDRAULIC SUSPENSION HOSES

HYDRAULIC SUSPENSION HOSES

HYDRAULIC SUSPENSION PUMPS

HYDRAULIC SUSPENSION PUMPS

HYDRAULIC SUSPENSION PUMPS

IDLER ARMS

IDLER ARMS

IDLER ARMS

IDLER ARMS

INTERMEDIATE SHAFT U-JOINTS

INTERMEDIATE SHAFT U-JOINTS

KING PINS

NOTE: You are not required to replace king pins in axle sets. However, when replacing a king pin due to wear exceeding manufacturer's specifications, you may suggest replacement of the other king pin on the axle if its measurement shows it is close to the end of its useful life.

KING PINS

MODULES

MODULES

MODULES

PITMAN ARMS

PITMAN ARMS

PITMAN ARMS

PITMAN ARMS

POWER STEERING BELTS

POWER STEERING BELTS

POWER STEERING BELTS

POWER STEERING COOLERS

POWER STEERING COOLERS

POWER STEERING FLUID

POWER STEERING FLUID

POWER STEERING FLUID

POWER STEERING HOSES

POWER STEERING HOSES

POWER STEERING LINES (STEEL)

NOTE: When replacing steel power steering lines, be sure to use a replacement product that meets or exceeds OEM specifications.

POWER STEERING LINES (STEEL)

POWER STEERING LINES (STEEL)

POWER STEERING PUMPS - ELECTRIC

POWER STEERING PUMPS - ELECTRIC

POWER STEERING PUMPS - ELECTRIC

POWER STEERING PUMPS

POWER STEERING PUMPS

POWER STEERING PUMPS

RADAR SENSOR

NOTE: OEM may require this sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

RADAR SENSOR

RADAR SENSOR

RADIUS ARMS

RADIUS ARMS

RELAY RODS

RELAY RODS

RELAY RODS

RELAY RODS

RELAYS

RELAYS

RELAYS

SENSORS

SENSORS

SHOCK ABSORBERS, STRUT CARTRIDGES AND STRUT ASSEMBLIES

NOTE: You are not required to replace shocks or struts in axle sets. However, when replacing a shock or strut due to the conditions that follow, you may suggest replacement of the other shock or strut on the same axle for one or more of the following: improved performance or preventive maintenance; part is close to the end of its useful life; to extend tire life; to balance ride and handling; or to improve stopping distance. When replacing steering and/or suspension components which may affect an alignment angle, you are required to check and adjust alignment as needed. Refer to the OEM specifications. Under no circumstances should a technician bend struts or strut housings. A vehicle's load-carrying and handling abilities are limited by its suspension, tires, brakes, and driveline. Installing coil over shocks or any other load assist device does not increase the vehicle's load capacity. See the vehicle owner's manual for more details. If vehicle is equipped with OEM coil over shocks, apply the conditions for coil springs from the Springs: Coil, Leaf, and Torsion Bar section of the Steering and Suspension guidelines. If the vehicle is equipped with addon coil over shocks, you may suggest replacement with standard shocks for a spring-related condition.

SHOCK ABSORBERS, STRUT CARTRIDGES AND STRUT ASSEMBLIES

SHOCK ABSORBERS, STRUT CARTRIDGES AND STRUT ASSEMBLIES

SHOCK ABSORBERS, STRUT CARTRIDGES AND STRUT ASSEMBLIES

SPINDLES

SPINDLES

SPINDLES

SPRINGS, COIL, LEAF AND TORSION BARS

NOTE: When springs are replaced, it is suggested, but not required, that both springs on an axle be replaced to maintain equal height from side to side and to provide a balanced ride and proper handling. When variable rate springs are installed in place of conventional coil springs, they must be installed in axle sets to ensure proper handling, uniform ride, and proper chassis height. Erroneous height measurements may result from: improper tire inflation, non-standard tire or wheel size, and heavy load in vehicle or trunk

SPRINGS, COIL, LEAF AND TORSION BARS

SPRINGS, COIL, LEAF AND TORSION BARS

STABILITRAC

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

STABILITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

STEERING ANGLE SENSOR

NOTE: OEM may require this sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline. Sensor must be reset when replacing / servicing steering rack assembly.

STEERING ANGLE SENSOR

STEERING ANGLE SENSOR

STEERING ARMS

STEERING ARMS

STEERING COUPLERS

STEERING COUPLERS

STEERING COUPLERS

STEERING DAMPERS

NOTE: The following procedures are only required if the vehicle was originally equipped from the factory with a steering damper. If the steering damper is an add-on unit, then the unit may be removed (and not replaced), based on customer's informed decision.

STEERING DAMPERS

STEERING DAMPERS

STEERING GEARS (EXCEPT RACK AND PINION)

STEERING GEARS (EXCEPT RACK AND PINION)

STEERING GEARS (EXCEPT RACK AND PINION)

STEERING GEARS (EXCEPT RACK AND PINION)

STEERING GEARS, RACK AND PINION

STEERING GEARS, RACK AND PINION

STEERING GEARS, RACK AND PINION

STEERING KNUCKLES

STEERING KNUCKLES

STEERING KNUCKLES

STRIKE OUT BUMPERS

STRIKE OUT BUMPERS

STRUT BEARING PLATE ASSEMBLIES

NOTE: When the following guidelines indicate replacement of bearing, only the bearing should be replaced if it is available separately; otherwise, replace the bearing plate assembly.

STRUT BEARING PLATE ASSEMBLIES

STRUT RODS

STRUT RODS

STRUT RODS

SUSPENSION PUMPS (HYDRAULIC)

SUSPENSION PUMPS (HYDRAULIC)

SWAY BAR LINKS

SWAY BAR LINKS

SWAY BAR LINKS

SWAY BAR LINKS

SWAY BAR MOUNTING BUSHINGS

SWAY BAR MOUNTING BUSHINGS

SWAY BAR MOUNTING BUSHINGS

SWAY BARS

SWAY BARS

SWITCHES

SWITCHES

SWITCHES

TIE ROD ENDS (INNER AND OUTER)

TIE ROD ENDS (INNER AND OUTER)

TIE ROD ENDS (INNER AND OUTER)

TIE ROD ENDS (INNER AND OUTER)

TIRE PRESSURE MONITORING SYSTEM

NOTE: A Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) is designed to detect and alert the driver should the air pressure level in one or more of the vehicle's tires, up to all four tires, fall below the manufacturer's recommended inflation pressure or another pre-set level.

NOTE: NHTSA does not consider installation of an aftermarket or replacement tire or rim that is not compatible with the TPMS to be a "make inoperative" situation under 49 U.S.C. 30122, provided that the entity does not disable the TPMS malfunction indicator.

TIRE PRESSURE SENSORS

TIRE PRESSURE SENSORS

TIRES

NOTE: These guidelines do not apply to split rims. Some vehicle manufacturers restrict replacement of tires to specific brands, types, or sizes. High pressure temporary compact spare tires should not be used with any other rims or wheels, nor should standard tires, snow tires, wheel covers, or trim rings be used with high pressure compact spare rims or wheels. Attempting to mount a tire of one diameter on a wheel of a different diameter or flange type may result in serious injury or death. Only specially trained persons should de-mount or mount tires. Explosions of tire and wheel assembly can result from improper mounting, possibly causing serious injury or death. Consult the vehicle owner's manual or vehicle placard for correct size, speed rating, designation, and cold inflation pressure of the original tires. Do not exceed the maximum load or inflation capacity of the tire specified by the Tire and Rim Association When replacing tires, it is suggested that the replacement tires match or exceed the OEM speed rating designation. If tires of different speed rating designations are mixed on the same vehicle, the tires may vary in handling characteristics. Do not mix different speed rating designations on the same axle. Do not mix radials with non-radial tires on the same axle, as this may affect vehicle handling and stability. If radial tires and bias or bias-belted ply tires are mixed on the same vehicle, the radials must be on the rear. High-pressure temporary compact spare tires are exempt from this rule. Do not mix size or type (Run Flat, all season, performance, mud and snow) of tires on the same axle. If any flammable emergency tire inflation product has been used on a tire, consult inflation product, manufacturer's product information label for tire deflation procedures to avoid possible serious injury or death. In some vehicles, changing the tire diameter from factory-equipped size can affect drive ability, as well as the performance of ABS and other vehicle systems. Consult the vehicle manufacturer's specifications.

TIRE PRESSURE SENSORS

TIRE PRESSURE SENSORS

TORQUE SENSOR

TORQUE SENSOR

TORQUE SENSOR

TORSION SPRINGS

TORSION SPRINGS

TRACK BAR BUSHINGS

TRACK BAR BUSHINGS

TRACK BAR BUSHINGS

TRACK BARS

TRACK BARS

TRACK BARS

TRAILING ARM BUSHINGS

TRAILING ARM BUSHINGS

TRAILING ARMS

TRAILING ARMS

TRAILING ARMS

VALVE STEMS

NOTE: Most tire manufacturers suggest replacement of non-TPMS valve stems any time a new tire is installed. For TPMS valve stems, the manufacturer may require replacement of the valve stem, o-ring seals, washers, gaskets, valve cores, compression washers and/or locking nut.

VALVE STEMS

VEHICLE DYNAMICS CONTROL

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR

VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR

VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR

VEHICLE STABILITY ASSIST

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

VEHICLE STABILITY/SKID CONTROL

NOTE: An evolution of ABS and Traction Control. It uses the ABS hardware and two additional sensors: a steering-wheel angle sensor, which measures the position and rate of steering wheel input, and a yaw sensor, which measures the rate at which the vehicle is actually turning. By comparing rates, computer determines if the vehicle is oversteering or understeering.

NOTE: On slippery surfaces or during aggressive maneuvers, if the vehicle understeers severely, the computer will actuate the brakes on the inside rear wheel, just hard enough and just long enough to correct the steering behavior.

When the vehicle oversteers severely, the system will brake the outside front wheel instead.

NOTE: When servicing this system, OEM may require steering angle sensor be calibrated to the vehicle thrustline.

WARNING LAMPS

WARNING LAMPS

WHEEL ALIGNMENT

NOTE: Wheel alignment is defined as the measurement, analysis, and adjustment of steering and suspension angles to conform to manufacturer specifications.

These angles usually include, but are not limited to: caster, camber, toe, and thrust angle. Where these angles are not adjustable and not in specification, component replacement or correction kits may be required. Errors in set-back and steering axis inclination (SAI) are often attributable to failed or damaged components and must be corrected prior to performing an alignment. Failure to replace or correct suggested parts or service may prevent a proper alignment.

Before performing an alignment check, inspect and verify the following: Tire pressure and size . Vehicle loading . Ride height . Steering and suspension parts only if the inspection reveals that all the above are within published specifications, a wheel alignment check and a proper wheel alignment, if needed, may be performed. Under no circumstances should a technician bend or heat any steering or suspension component, unless specified by the vehicle manufacturer. All measurements and specifications must be noted on the inspection report.

WHEEL ALIGNMENT

WHEEL ALIGNMENT

WHEEL ATTACHMENT HARDWARE

NOTE: For conditions noted below, also check condition of wheel stud holes. Proper lug nut torque is essential. Follow recommended torque specifications and tightening sequence. DO NOT lubricate threads unless specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

WHEEL ATTACHMENT HARDWARE

WHEEL BEARINGS, RACES AND SEALS

NOTE: When replacing or repacking wheel bearings, grease seal replacement is required. You are not required to replace these components in axle sets.

Determine the need to replace based upon the individual component conditions that follow.

WHEEL BEARINGS, RACES AND SEALS

WHEELS (RIMS)

NOTE: Mounting a regular tire on a high-pressure compact spare wheel is not permitted. Attempting to mount a tire of one diameter on a wheel of a different diameter or flange type may result in serious injury or death. If the wheel identification stamp is not legible, or cannot be found, do not use the wheel until the size and type have been properly identified. Wheels of different diameter, offset, or width cannot be mixed on the same axle. Bead seat tapers cannot be interchanged.

WHEELS (RIMS)

WHEELS (RIMS)

WIRING HARNESSES AND CONNECTORS

WIRING HARNESSES AND CONNECTORS

WIRING HARNESSES AND CONNECTORS

Reason code explanation

Reason code explanation

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